The Urban Heat Island City centers tend to be several degrees warmer than surrounding suburbs and countryside. Why? Albedo evapotranspiration
High-Mountain Environments Reduced air pressure reduced oxygen to lungs Fewer air molecules sun’s rays stronger Less CO 2 and water vapor reduced greenhouse effect What do these graphs show?
Temperature Inversion: reversal of normal temperature pattern so that air temperature increases with altitude Occurs when cold marine air slips under warm air.
Daily and Annual Cycles of Air Temperature Insolation varies by season Net radiation varies daily Positive after sunrise Peaks at noon Decreases to negative by sunset Air temperature varies daily When is lowest temp? When max? Why
Land and Water Contrasts Temperature Ranges for Maritime and Inland?
Annual Net Radiation and Temperature Cycles Annual cycle of daily insolation affects net radiation, which affects monthly mean air temperature Review sheet #16
Air temperature maps- high, low temp, gradients Isotherm? Temperature gradient: rate of temperature change along a selected line or direction
World Patterns of Air Temperature Factors Controlling Air Temperature Patterns Three main factors explaining world isotherm patterns: 1. Latitude affects annual insolation, temperatures, and seasonal temperature variation 2. Maritime-continental contrast 3. Elevation
Patterns to note: Large land masses in Arctic and subarctic zones are extremely cold Ice and snow reflect insolation Temperatures decrease from equator to poles Highlands are colder than surrounding lowlands. Temperatures in equatorial regions? Continents heat/cool faster than oceans