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Sensory System Ear: Sound & Balance
3 Parts: Outer – Middle - Inner
Outer Ear: Auricle Called the PinnaFx: Collects sound waves Visible part of the ear, outside the head Auris latin for ear Pinna is external portion of the ear (pinna latin for wing or fin)
Outer Ear: External Auditory CanalExtends from Pinna to eardrum Fx: Transmits sound waves Aka ear canal. AKA external auditory meatus. Adults ~ 2.5 cm in length and .7 cm diameter
Outer Ear: External Auditory CanalProduces Cerumen (earwax) Fx: Traps foreign bodies Wet type dominant, dry type is recessive Cotton swaps = bad, impact wax, can cause damage to your ears.
Middle Ear: Air-filled Converts sound waves to mechanical energyAmplifies it Conducts to next chamber
Components: Tympanic membrane – Eardrum Vibrates Sound to MechanicalEnergy
Perforated Eardrum: ruptured
Inflammation of the middle earOtitis Media Painful ear infection, bacterial or viral. Usually prescribed antibiotics Inflammation of the middle ear
Components: Ossicles – 3 bones Fx: Mechanical vibrationMalleus (Hammer) Incus (Anvil) Stapes (Stirrup) Fx: Mechanical vibration Ossicle means small bone
Middle Ear: Ossicles
Middle Ear: Oval window - Tranfers mechanical vibration from middle ear to inner ear
View of OVAL WINDOW Oval Window
Middle Ear opens to Nasopharynx via Eustachian tube
Adjusts pressures between middle ear & outside Drains middle earEustachian Tube Fx: Adjusts pressures between middle ear & outside Drains middle ear Picture – as it opens to nasopharynx
Swallowing & yawning open it Eustachian Canal Normally closed Swallowing & yawning open it Tympanic membrane will not vibrate well if pressures not equal Fluid in canal behind ear drum
If fail to open, increased pressure (pain) and infectionsEustachian Canal If fail to open, increased pressure (pain) and infections Fluid in canal behind ear drum
Requires Ear Tubes – drain the excess fluid & prevent infection
Bony Chambers (fluid-filled)Inner Ear Bony Chambers (fluid-filled) Vestibule Semicircular Canals Cochlea
Inner Ear Bony Labyrinth
Inner Ear Bony LabyrinthFluid-filled = Perilymph Membranous sac is suspended in the periliymph = Membranous labyrinth Bony labyrinth contains perilymph
Inner Ear Membranous LabyrinthSac contains thick fluid = Endolymph Membranous labyrinth contains endolymph
Hearing and the Inner Ear - CochleaSnail-like shape Membranous sac contains organ of Corti
Cochlear Ducts Membranous labyrinth Perilymph Endolymph Organ of CortiOrgan of corti is only found in mammals. Endolymph Organ of Corti
Organ of Corti Contains specialized hearing receptors or hair cellsEmbedded in basilar membrane Basilar membrane stiff structure separates two tubes in cochlea
Organ of Corti Hair cells covered by gel membrane (Tectorial membrane)Corti converts mechanical energy into electrochemical energy
Hearing Process Ossicles vibrate oval windowSets the fluids into motion (pressure waves)
Hearing Process Vibrate basilar membraneHair cells rub tectorial membrane (bent)
Hearing Process Hair cells transmit impulse to cochlear nerveInterpretation of sound in temporal lobe
Sound Energy to Hearing InterpretationMechanical Energy Mechanical Electrochemical
Balance: Static EquilibriumPosition of head when not moving (which way is up) Membranous sacs in vestibule contain maculae
Maculae Physiology As head moves, otoliths roll in response to gravityPulls on gel and bends hairs in receptors
Maculae Physiology Hair cells send impulse via vestibular nerveSignal to cerebellum for interpretation
Balance: Dynamic EquilibriumRotation of head or movement is detected Membranous semicircular canals filled with endolymph
Crista Ampullaris Membranous semicircular canals contain crista ampullaris
Crista Ampullaris Contains receptor cells (w/ hairs) embedded in cupula (gel-like cap)
Ampullaris PhysiologyWhen head moves, endolymph lags behind Cupula drags against endolymph current and bends hairs
Ampullaris PhysiologyStimulates hair cells to send impulse Vestibular nerve sends impulse to cerebellum
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