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Presentation on theme: "LEARNING OBJECTIVES/ GOALS/ SWBAT"— Presentation transcript:

STANDARD(S): 12.5 Students summarize landmark U.S. Supreme Court interpretations of the Constitution and its amendments. LEARNING OBJECTIVES/ GOALS/ SWBAT Explain how Americans’ commitment to freedom led to the creation of the Bill of Rights. Understand that the rights guaranteed by limited government are not absolute. Show how federalism affects individual rights. Describe how the 9th Amendment helps protect individual rights.

2 A BULLDOG ALWAYS Commitment Attitude CARES Respect Encouragement Safety

3 Key Terms civil liberties: freedoms protected against any unjust actions taken by the government civil rights: freedoms protected by positive actions taken by the government Bill of Rights: the first ten amendments added to the Constitution, ratified in 1791 aliens: people who are not citizens of the country in which they live

4 Key Terms, cont. Due Process Clause: clause in the 14th Amendment that says no state can take away a person’s life, liberty, or property without due process of law

5 Guided Reading 1. The Framers believed that the primary purpose of government was to protect individual rights

6 Additional Key Terms, cont.
process of incorporation: the manner in which the Supreme Court has interpreted the guarantees in the Bill of Rights as being part of the Due Process Clause

7 Guided Reading 2. They Stated this belief in the Declaration of Independence and the 3. Constitution.

8 Introduction How does the Constitution protect the rights of individuals against government? The Constitution guarantees civil rights and civil liberties to the American people. Many of these rights and liberties are protected by the laws established in the Bill of Rights and the 14th Amendment.

9 Guided Reading 4. The Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution because people wanted a guarantee of individual rights explicitly stated

10 Key Documents The Declaration of Independence states that all men have unalienable rights and that governments exist to protect these rights. The Preamble to the Constitution states that purpose of the American government is to “secure the blessings of Liberty” to the people. Articles I and III of the Constitution guarantee many key rights.

11 Guided Reading 5. This document fit well with the principle of Limited government

12 The Bill of Rights There was no general listing of the rights of the people in the Constitution until the Bill of Rights was ratified in Now the Bill of Rights is an essential part of the Constitution. James Madison (right) authored the Bill of Rights.

13 Civil Rights and Liberties
It is important to note the difference between "civil rights" and "civil liberties." The legal area known as "civil rights" has traditionally revolved around the basic right to be free from unequal treatment based on certain protected characteristics (race, gender, disability, etc.) in settings such as employment and housing. "Civil liberties" concern basic rights and freedoms that are guaranteed -- either explicitly identified in the Bill of Rights and the Constitution, or interpreted through the years by courts and lawmakers.

14 Civil Rights and Liberties
Civil liberties include: Freedom of speech The right to privacy The right to be free from unreasonable searches of your home The right to a fair court trial The right to marry The right to vote

15 Civil Rights and Liberties
One way to consider the difference between "civil rights" and "civil liberties" is to look at what right is affected, and whose right is affected. For example, as an employee, you do not have the legal right to a promotion, mainly because getting a promotion is not a guaranteed "civil liberty." But, as a female employee you do have the legal right to be free from discrimination in being considered for that promotion -- you cannot legally be denied the promotion based on your gender (or race, or disability, etc.). By choosing not to promote a female worker solely because of the employee's gender, the employer has committed a civil rights violation and has engaged in unlawful employment discrimination based on sex or gender.

16 Civil Rights and Liberties
Civil liberties can be thought of as freedoms protected from possible government abuse. Civil liberties include freedom of religion, speech, and the press as well as the right to a fair trial. Civil rights can be thought of as freedoms defended by the government. Civil rights include laws banning discrimination.

17 Limited Government Checkpoint: How does the Bill of Rights limit government in the United States? All governments have authority over individual citizens. In a democratic government such as the United States, this authority is limited by laws like the Bill of Rights, which specifies individual rights and freedoms that government cannot violate. Checkpoint Answer: The Bill of Rights specifies a wide range of rights and freedoms that the U.S. government must protect and cannot violate by its actions or through passing any new laws. 17

18 Relative Rights U.S. citizens may exercise their own rights as long as they do not infringe upon the rights of others. For example, the right to free speech does not protect obscene language. Rights can come into conflict with each other. When this happens, the courts must then decide the issue. Blaring music late at night is not a right because it infringes on the rights of others.

19 Whose Rights? Most constitutional rights extend to all people in the United States, including aliens, or non-citizens. However, certain rights of aliens, such as freedom of travel, can be restricted. During wartime these restrictions may increase. For example, in World War II people of Japanese descent were forced to relocate to internment camps. NOTE TO TEACHERS: The Japanese internment during WW II was ruled constitutional by the Supreme Court, but the U.S. government eventually apologized and paid damages to each living person who had been relocated to the internment camps

20 Guided Reading 6. Each individual’s rights are limited by the rights of others 7. Often the rights of individuals conflict and, when this occurs, the courts may be called upon to decide which rights take precedence.

21 Federalism The Bill of Rights applies to the actions of the federal government, not the state governments. However, each state constitution contains its own bill of rights to protect the freedoms of its citizens. In addition, the 14th Amendment extends the basic rights protected by the Bill of Rights to the citizens of all states.

22 Guided Reading 8. For the most part, the protections of the Bill of Rights are extended to Citizens and 9. aliens, but there are some rights that may be denied to 10. aliens.

23 The 14th Amendment The 14th Amendment includes a Due Process Clause. The Supreme Court has ruled that this clause means no state can deny any person their basic rights and liberties. Over time, through the process of incorporation, these basic rights and liberties have been defined as including most of the protections in the Bill of Rights.


25 Gitlow v. New York, 1925 Checkpoint: Why is the case Gitlow v. New York important? New York state had convicted Benjamin Gitlow of criminal anarchy for urging people to overthrow the government. The Supreme Court upheld the conviction, but ruled for the first time that the 1st Amendment right to free speech also extended to the states because of the 14th Amendment. Checkpoint Answer: The Gitlow v. New York ruling began the process of incorporation by which many of the freedoms guaranteed in the Bill of Rights were also deemed to be protected in the states under the 14th Amendment. 25

26 Guided Reading 11. The Court has engaged in the process of incorporation (Through decisions in various court cases dating as far back as 1925, the Court has incorporated most Bill of Rights protections into the Due Process Clause, which essentially prevents States from depriving people of their basic rights.)

27 The 9th Amendment The 9th Amendment declares that the people have rights beyond those specifically listed in the Constitution. Over time the Supreme Court has determined that some of these unlisted rights include: The right of a person not to be tried on the basis of unlawfully gained evidence The right of a woman to choose to have an abortion 27

28 Review Now that you have learned how the Constitution protects the rights of individuals against government, go back and answer the Chapter Essential Question. How can the judiciary balance individual rights with the common good?

29 Guided Reading 12. Civil Rights 13. Alien 14. Process of Incorporation 15. Bill of Rights 16. Due Process Clause 17. Civil Liberties


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