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McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Market Segmentation and Product Positioning Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Chapter 15

3 15-3 Selection of the appropriate target market is paramount to developing successful marketing programs Market segmentation is based on the idea that a single product usually will not appeal to all consumers Introduction

4 15-4 Market segmentation is the process of dividing a market into groups of similar consumers and selecting the most appropriate group(s) of individuals for the firm to serve Five tasks in the process of market segmentation Introduction cont.

5 Tasks in Market Segmentation

6 15-6 Analyze Consumer-Product Relationships Entails analysis of the affect and cognition, behavior, and environments involved in the purchase/consumption process for the particular product Three general approaches –Brainstorm the product concept –Focus groups and other types of primary research –Secondary research

7 15-7 Analyze Consumer-Product Relationships cont. Considerable information is available for analyzing various markets for many established product categories For many products, the initial breakdown in markets is between the prestige and mass markets

8 15-8 Investigate Segmentation Bases No simple way to determine the best bases for segmenting markets Four specific types of segmentation –Benefit –Psychographic –Person/situation –Geodemographic

9 Useful Segmentation Bases for Consumer Markets

10 Useful Segmentation Bases for Consumer Markets cont.

11 15-11 Benefit Segmentation Benefits people seek in consuming a given product is the basic reason for the existence of true market segments –Attempts to measure consumer value systems and consumers’ perceptions of various brands in a product class

12 Toothpaste Market Benefit Segmentation

13 15-13 Psychographic Segmentation Divides markets on differences in consumer lifestyles –Generally follows a post hoc model –Studies often include hundreds of questions and provide a tremendous amount of information about consumers –Activity, interest, and opinion (AIO) questions are sometimes very general –Validity of this segmentation is sometimes questioned

14 15-14 Psychographic Segmentation cont. –The best-known psychographic segmentation is called VALS Based on two dimensions –Vertical dimension »Based on the degree to which they are innovative and have resources –Horizontal dimension »Motivated primarily by ideals »Motivated primarily by achievement »Motivated primarily by self-expression

15 15-15 VALS™ Framework and Segments

16 VALS TM Framework and Segments cont.

17 15-17 Person/Situation Segmentation Markets can often be divided on the basis of the usage situation in conjunction with individual differences of consumers –Combines not only the person and the situation, but also other important segmentation bases Benefits sought Product and attribute perceptions Marketplace behavior

18 15-18 Person/Situation Segmentation cont.

19 15-19 Geodemographic Segmentation Identifies specific households by –Focusing on local neighborhood geography –Creates classifications of actual, addressable, mappable neighborhoods where consumers live and shop –PRIZM NE system Based on the assumptions that consumers in particular neighborhoods are similar in many respects and that the best prospects are those who actually use a product or other consumes like them

20 15-20 Develop Product Positioning Positioning the product relative to competing products in the minds of consumers –Key objective is to form a particular brand image in consumers’ minds –Accomplished by developing a coherent strategy that may involve all of the marketing mix elements

21 15-21 Develop Product Positioning cont. –Five approaches to positioning strategy: Attribute Use or application Product user Product class Competitors

22 15-22 Positioning by Attribute Associating a product with an attribute, a product feature, or a customer feature –A new product can be positioned with respect to an attribute ignored by competitors –Sometimes a product can be positioned in terms of two or more attributes simultaneously –The price/quality attribute dimension is commonly used for positioning products as well as stores

23 15-23 Positioning by Use or Application Products can have multiple positioning strategies, although increasing the number involves difficulties and risks Often a positioning-by-use strategy represents a second or third position designed to expand the market

24 15-24 Positioning by Product User Positions products according to segments of class of users that use the product/ brand Highlights a specific lifestyle profile

25 15-25 Positioning by Product Class Positioning of product according to product class, usually keeping one element as the identifying category representation

26 15-26 Positioning by Competitors Competition is the explicit or implicit frame of reference –Major purpose is to convince consumers that a brand is better than the market leader on important attributes –Positioning with respect to a competitor is commonly done in advertisements in which a competitor is named and compared

27 15-27 Positioning Maps A visual depiction of consumers’ perceptions of competitive products, brands, or models –Constructed by surveying consumers about various product attributes and developing dimension and a graph indicating the relative position of competitors –Can give marketers a sense of how their brands are perceived by consumers relative to competitors and suggest positioning strategies

28 15-28 Positioning Map for Automobiles

29 15-29 Select Segmentation Strategy Four basic segmentation strategy alternatives –May decide not to enter the market –May decide to be a mass marketer instead of segmenting –May decide to market to only one segment –May decide to market more than one segment and design a separate marketing strategy for each

30 15-30 Select Segmentation Strategy cont. Marketers must have some criteria on which to base segmentation strategy decisions –Measurable –Meaningful –Marketable

31 15-31 Design Marketing Mix Strategy Selecting the target market and designing the marketing mix go hand-in-hand Many marketing mix decisions are made in conjunction with target market selections

32 15-32 Summary Market segment was defined Market segmentation was analyzed in terms of interrelated tasks Noted that market segmentation is a cornerstone of sound marketing strategy development

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