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Helping your child with Maths In Year 2

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Helping your child with Maths Try to make maths as much fun as possible - games, puzzles and jigsaws are a great way to start. It's also important to show how we use maths skills in our everyday lives and to involve your child in this. Don't shy away from maths if you didn’t like it at school. Try to find new ways to enjoy the subject with your child. Here are some ideas: Counting Help your child to count beyond 20 by counting steps as you walk to school. Try starting at a multiple of 10 (10, 20, 30, 40 etc.) and help your child to count on. You could also count steps in 2s, 5s or 10s to help your child learn these times tables. Children also need to be able to count backwards to help them with subtraction. Try starting at 20 and count backwards with each step you take. Once your child can confidently count back from 20, try bigger numbers to start from. Another challenge is to count back in 2s. Start at 20 and count back in 2s as you walk. Move on to counting back in 10s and 5s when you feel your child is ready.

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Number Recognition Help your child to learn to recognise numbers. Point out numbers you see in everyday activities, such as numbers on packets or prices, car number plates, house or bus numbers. Your child now needs to recognise all 2 digit numbers. More number work Make some 2 digit number cards. Ask your child to read the number. Can your child write the 2 digit number? Ask your child to put the numbers in order, from smallest to largest. 25 47 61 89 93 47 40 (4 tens) 7 (7 units) This is called ‘partitioning’ a number. How many tens are in the number? How many units? This is called partitioning.

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Playing skittles Make a set of skittles using ten cardboard tubes which can be knocked over with a soft ball. Score 1 for every skittle knocked over. Move on to scoring 2 for every skittle knocked over and help your child count in 2s. Also try scoring 5 and 10 for every skittle. Addition Roll 2 dice/ pick 2 numbers out of a hat. Ask your child to put the bigger number first. Help them add the two numbers together by counting on. E.g. If you roll a 3 and a 6, put the 6 first. Encourage your child to put the number 6 in their head, then count on 3 more. So, they will say 6, and count on 7,8,9. Children often want to count all the spots. Emphasise that we don’t need to count the first 6, we can start from this number and count on. Once your child can add together 2 single digit numbers, move on to rolling 3 dice. Make a target game Place three or four empty boxes in the floor. Label each box with a number between 1 and 10. Encourage your child to help you to make up rules for the game. How many paper balls can you throw in a turn? How many does the winner of the game need to score altogether?

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Adding 10 Use the 100 square below to help your child to add 10 to a 2 digit number. Throw a counter onto the 100 square and ask your child to say what number it has landed on. Ask them to find the number which is 10 more. Encourage them to describe what has happened to the number (the number in the 10s column has got bigger by 1). Encourage your child to recognise the ‘quick’ way of adding 10. They do not need to count on 10, they can simply move to the number below the one they landed on. Once they understand this, they are ready to add a multiple of 10. (10/20/30/40/50/60/70/80/90.) Subtracting 10 You can use the 100 square to subtract 10 and multiples of 10. Ask your child to explain how they could subtract 10. Encourage them to recognise that they need to look at the number above the one they landed on. They can then move on to subtracting multiples of 10.

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Adding 2 digit numbers When your child can partition confidently, move on to using this skill to add numbers together. Start by using 2 digit numbers with a number below 5 in the units column, like the example below. 24 32 + 20 4 4 30 2 2 Partition the numbers: Add the tens: 20 30 += 50 Add the units: 4 4 2 2 6 6 + = Combine the answers: 50 6 6 + = 56 Adding 2 digit numbers using a number line Your child needs to put the largest number at the far left of the number line, partition the second number into tens and units and then jump on the tens number, followed by the number of units. 3252 56 +20+4

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Number Bonds to 10 Playing skittles Make a set of skittles using ten cardboard tubes which can be knocked over with a soft ball. After each throw talk about the score: There were ten skittles and we knocked over 6. There are 4 left standing up. 6 and 4 make 10. Number bond dice games Roll a die. Ask your child what number goes with the number rolled to make 10. 0 + 10 = 10 1 + 9 = 10 2 + 8 = 10 3 + 7 = 10 4 + 6 = 10 5 + 5 = 10 What we are aiming for is immediate recall of number bonds to 10. You could play the “I say, you say” game. You say a number below 10 and your child has to give you the number bond that goes with it to make 10, as quickly as possible. ( I say 4, you say ___). Your child says 6. Number Bonds to 20 Use a set of 20 objects to help your child learn number bonds to 20. Start with 10 + 10. Tell your child to move one counter over to the other side. How many are on each side now? 9 + 11. Challenge your child to find as many different ways to make 20 as possible, by adding 2 numbers together. 0 + 20 = 20 1 + 19 = 20 2 + 18 = 20 3 + 17 = 20 4 + 16 = 20 5 + 15 = 20 6 + 14 = 20 7 + 13 = 20 8 + 12 = 20 9 + 11 = 20 10 + 10 = 20 11 + 9 = 20 6 + 4 = 10 7 + 3 = 10 8 + 2 = 10 9 + 1 = 10 10 + 0 = 10

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Subtraction Choose a 2 digit number card and roll a dice. Write down the number sentence: 25 25 – 6 = 19 Encourage your child to put the larger number in their head and count back. Remind your child that we don’t say the number we start on. So, for the above number sentence, your child would put 25 in their head and say 24, 23, 22, 21, 20, 19. Subtraction using a number line Choose two, 2 digit number cards. Ask your child to put the largest number first and write the number sentence: 45 22 45– 22 = 23 45 -20 25 -2 23 Your child needs to draw a line and write the biggest number at the far right of the line. Jump back 20 and then jump back another 2. To use this method, your child needs to be able to partition and subtract multiples of 10 confidently. These skills are also described in this booklet.

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Doubling Introduce your child to doubling numbers by using 2 sets of objects of the same size: Double 3 equals 6. 3 + 3 = 6. Start with numbers up to 5 and then progress to numbers up to 10. The aim is for your child to be able to recall doubles up to double 10 instantly. This requires lots of practice. Near doubles When your child can double numbers up to 10, move on to near doubles, e.g. 6 + 7. Double 7 is 14. We then need to subtract 1, because we are finding 6 + 7. Halving Your child needs to learn that halving is the inverse of doubling. You can undo doubling by halving. Demonstrate this by giving your child 5 buttons. Ask them to double the number. They now have 10. Ask them to halve the number and they will be back to the number they started with. double half

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Sharing Give your child some pebbles/buttons/grapes etc. and ask them to share them fairly between 2 circles. Division Your child will learn two different ways of thinking about division: sharing and grouping. If you have 10 sweets, and share them between 2 people, each person gets 5 sweets – this is sharing. If you have 10 sweets and put them in groups of 2, you will get 5 groups – this is grouping. With both ideas it is important to see the link with multiplication – in this case, 2 people have 5 sweets each, making 10 sweets altogether, or 5 groups of 2 make 10. Children should do lots of sharing and grouping with apparatus, before they do any written division work. Below are some models and images to help your child understand multiplication and division: Grouping Give your child some pebbles/buttons/grapes etc. and ask them to put them in groups of 2:

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2D Shape Talk about the different shapes around the home and when you are out walking. (Circle/square/triangle/rectangle/pentagon/ hexagon/ heptagon/octagon/nonagon/decagon.) cube cuboid sphere cone cylinder triangular prism 3D Shape Ask your child what a 3D shape is. It is one which you can hold in your hand. 2D shapes are flat. Look for 3D shapes everywhere you go. You could take photographs and make a 3D shape book. The most common 3D shapes are shown below: square based pyramid triangle based pyramid

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Time In year 2 we focus on o’ clock and half past, quarter to the hour and quarter past the hour. Capacity Select 3 different size and shape containers – mugs/bottles/glasses etc. Ask your child which one they think holds the most water. Test this by seeing how many times you have to fill that container to fill a saucepan. You could record your results in a table. Container How many to fill the saucepan? Plastic beaker Tea cup Bottle Talk to your child about the shape of the containers. Did the tallest one hold the most water?

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11p Money When you go shopping there are many opportunities for helping your child with maths. Let them handle money and help them to recognise the coins. Ask your child to give you 20p. Ask your child if that is the only way to make 20p. What other ways are there? Once your child is used to investigating making 20p in different ways, move on to a bigger number. Change Give your child £1. Set up a shop where everything costs less than £1. Let your child ‘buy’ something from the shop and ask them how much change they need. 28p

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Weight If you weigh foods when shopping or baking, share with your child how you read the scales. Encourage them to have a go at reading the scales for themselves. Balancing scales Balancing scales can be used for a variety of activities. Children can simply compare the weight of various objects and put them in order of weight. They could also try to make them balance by making the weights equal on both sides.

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Useful Websites http://www.oxfordowl.co.uk/for-home/maths-owl/fun- activities http://www.topmarks.co.uk/maths-games/5-7-years/counting http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks1/maths/ http://www.ictgames.com/resources.html http://www.sumdog.com/en/parents/ http://www.theclassroomkit.com/numeral-recognition- games.html http://primarygamesarena.com/Year-2 http://www.twinkl.co.uk/

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