1 Network Theorems SUPERPOSITION THEOREM THÉVENIN’S THEOREM NORTON’S THEOREMMAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER THEOREMMILLMAN’S THEOREMSUBSTITUTION THEOREMRECIPROCITY THEOREM
2 SUPERPOSITION THEOREM In general, the theorem can be used to do the following:• Analyze networks that have two or more sources that are not in series or parallel.• Reveal the effect of each source on a particular quantity of interest.• For sources of different types (such as dc and ac which affect the parameters of the networkin a different manner), apply a separate analysis for each type, with the total result simply thealgebraic sum of the results.The superposition theorem states the following:The current through, or voltage across, any element of a network is equal to the algebraic sum of the currents or voltages produced independently by each source.
3 Only one source at a time can be used to find voltage or current. Once we have the solution for each source, we can combine the results to obtain the total solution.When removing a voltage source from a network schematic, replace itwith a direct connection (short circuit) of zero ohms. Any internalresistance associated with the source must remain in the network.When removing a current source from a network schematic, replace itby an open circuit of infinite ohms. Any internal resistance associatedwith the source must remain in the network.
4 Superposition cannot be applied to power effects The effect of each source is determined independently, the number of networks to be analyzed will equal the number of sources.Superposition cannot be applied to power effectsIf a particular current of a network is to be determined, the contribution to that current must be determined for each source. When the effect of each source has been determined, those currents in the same direction are added, and those having the opposite direction are subtracted. The total result is the direction of the larger sum and the magnitude of the difference.Similarly, if a particular voltage of a network is to be determined, the contribution to that voltage must be determined for each source. When the effect of each source has been determined, those voltages with the same polarity are added, and those with the opposite polarity are subtracted. The total result has the polarity of the larger sum and the magnitude of the difference.
5 EXAMPLE Using the superposition theorem, determine current I1 for the network.Solution:Since two sources are present, there are two networks to beanalyzed.First determine the effects of the voltage source by settingthe current source to zero amperes.The resulting current is defined as I1 because it is the current through resistor R1 due to the voltage source only.Due to the open circuit, resistor R1 is in series (and, in fact, in parallel)with the voltage source E. The voltage across the resistor is the applied voltage, and current I1 is determined by
6 The contribution due to the current source: Setting the voltage source to zero volts results in the network in Fig. The current source has been replaced with a short-circuit equivalent that is directly across the current source and resistor R1. Since the source current takes the path of least resistance, it chooses the zero ohm path of the inserted short-circuit equivalent, and the current through R1 is zero amperes. This is clearly demonstrated by an application of the current divider rule as follows:Since have the same defined direction in Fig, the total current is defined byThe voltage source is in parallel with the current source and load resistor R1, so the voltage across each must be 30 V. The result is that I1 must be determined solely by
7 EXAMPLE Using the principle of superposition, find the current l2 through the 12 k resistor in Fig. Solution: Considering the effect of the 6 mA current source
8 Considering the effect of the 9 V voltage source Current divider rule:Considering the effect of the 9 V voltage source8
9 Since have the same direction through R2, the desired current is the sum of the two:
10 Fig. A Solution: Considering the effect of the 12 V source EXAMPLE Find the current through the 2 Ω resistor of the network in Fig. The presence of three sources results in three different networks to be analyzedSolution: Considering the effect of the 12 V sourceConsidering the effect of the 6 V sourceFig. A
11 Considering the effect of the 3 A source Applying the current divider ruleThe total current through the 2 resistor appearsFig. AFig. A
12 THÉVENIN’S THEOREMIn general, the theorem is used to do the following:• Analyze networks with sources that are not in series or parallel.• Reduce the number of components required to establish the same characteristics at the output terminals.• Investigate the effect of changing a particular component on the behavior of a network without having toanalyze the entire network after each change.Thévenin’s theorem states the following:Any two-terminal dc network can be replaced by an equivalent circuitconsisting solely of a voltage source and a series resistor
13 Thévenin’s Theorem Procedure Preliminary:Remove that portion of the network where the Thévenin equivalent circuit is found.Mark the terminals of the remaining two-terminal network.RTh:3. Calculate RTh by first setting all sources to zero (voltage sources are replaced by short circuits, and current sources by open circuits) and then finding the resultant resistance between the two marked terminals. (If the internal resistance of the voltage and/or current sources is included in the original network, it must remain when the sources are set to zero.)ETh:4. Calculate ETh by first returning all sources to their original position and finding the open-circuit voltagebetween the marked terminals.
14 Conclusion:5. Draw the Thévenin equivalent circuit with the portion of the circuit previously removed replaced between the terminals of the equivalent circuit.In Fig. , it requires that the load resistor RL be temporarily removed from the network.Place the resistor RL between the terminals of the Thévenin equivalent circuit
15 The theorem states that the entire network inside the blue shaded area can be replaced by one voltage source and one resistorIf the replacement is done properly, the voltage across, and the current through, the resistor RL will be the same for each network. The value of RL can be changed to any value, and the voltage, current, or power to the loadresistor is the same for each configuration.EXAMPLE Find the Thévenin equivalent circuit for the network in the shaded area of the network in Fig. Then find the current through RL for values of 2Ω , 10 Ω , and 100 Ω .
16 Solution:Steps 1 and 2: The load resistor RL has been removed and the two “holding” terminals have been defined as a and b.Steps 3: Replacing the voltage source E1 with a short-circuit equivalentyields the network in Fig. , whereThey are the two terminals across which the Thévenin resistance is measured. It is no longer the total resistance as seen by the source..
17 Step 4: Replace the voltage source Step 4: Replace the voltage source. The open circuit voltage ETh is the same as the voltage drop across the 6 resistor.Applying the voltage divider rule,Step 5
18 EXAMPLE Find the Thévenin equivalent circuit for the network in the shaded area of the network. Solution: Steps 1 and 2
19 Step 3: All the remaining elements are in parallel, and the network can be redrawn as shown.
20 Step 4: The network can be redrawn as shown in Fig Step 4: The network can be redrawn as shown in Fig. Since the voltage is the same across parallel elements, the voltage across the series resistors R1 and R2 is E1, or 8 V.Applying the voltage divider ruleStep 5:
21 Norton’s Theorem Procedure The theorem states the following:Any two-terminal linear bilateral dc network can be replaced by anequivalent circuit consisting of a current source and a parallelresistorNorton’s Theorem ProcedurePreliminary:1. Remove that portion of the network across which the Norton equivalent circuit is found.2. Mark the terminals of the remaining two-terminal network.
22 RN:3. Calculate RN by first setting all sources to zero (voltage sources are replaced with short circuits, and current sources with open circuits) and then finding the resultant resistance between the two marked terminals. (If the internal resistance of the voltage and/or current sources is included in the original network, it must remain when the sources are set to zero.) Since RN =RTh , the procedure and value obtained using the approach described for Thévenin’s theorem will determine the proper value of RN.IN:4. Calculate IN by first returning all sources to their original position and then finding the short-circuit current between the marked terminals. It is the same current that would be measured by an ammeter placed between the marked terminals.5. Draw the Norton equivalent circuit with the portion of the circuit previously removed replaced between the terminals of the equivalent circuit.
23 The Norton and Thévenin equivalent circuits can also be found from each other by using the source transformation
24 EXAMPLE Find the Norton equivalent circuit for the network in the shaded areaSteps 1 and 2Step 3:
25 Step 4: The short-circuit connection between terminals a and b is in parallel with R2 and eliminates its effect. IN is therefore the same as through R1, and the full battery voltage appears across R1Step 5:
26 Converting the Norton equivalent circuit to a Thévenin equivalent circuit.
27 EXAMPLE (Two sources) Find the Norton equivalent circuit for the portion of the network to the left of a-b
29 Step 4: (Using superposition) For the 7 V battery For the 8 A source, both R1 and R2 have been“short circuited” by the direct connection between a and b, andStep 5:
30 MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER THEOREM A load will receive maximum power from a network when its resistance is exactly equal to the Thévenin resistance of the network applied to the load. That is,For the Thévenin equivalent circuit, when the load is set equal to the Thévenin resistance, the load will receive maximum power from the network.
31 The maximum power delivered to the load can be determined by first finding the current Then substitute into the power equation:and
32 MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER occurs when the load voltage and current are one-half of their maximum possible values.The current through the load is determined byThe voltage is determined byThe power by
35 MILLMAN’S THEOREMAny number of parallel voltage sources can be reduced to one.The three voltage sources can be reduced to one. This permits finding the current through or voltage across RL without having to apply a method such as mesh analysis, nodal analysis, superposition.
36 Three steps are included in its application. Step 1: Convert all voltage sources to current sources.Step 2: Combine parallel current sources.
37 Step 3: Convert the resulting current source to a voltage source, and the desired single-source network is obtained. In general, Millman’s theorem states that for any number of parallel voltage sources,The plus-and-minus signs include those cases where the sources may not be supplying energy in the same direction.The equivalent resistance is
38 In terms of the resistance values, The dual of Millman’s theorem
39 EXAMPLE Using Millman’s theorem, find the current through and voltage across the resistor RL.
41 SUBSTITUTION THEOREMIf the voltage across and the current through any branch of a dc bilateral network are known, this branch can be replaced by any combination of elements that will maintain the same voltage across and current through the chosen branch.The theorem states that for branch equivalence, the terminal voltage and current must be the same
43 A known potential difference and current in a network can be replaced by an ideal voltage source and current source, respectively.This theorem cannot be used to solve networks with two or more sources that are not in series or parallel. For it to be applied, a potential difference or current value must be known.
44 RECIPROCITY THEOREM Applicable only to single-source networks The current I in any branch of a network, due to a single voltage source E anywhere else in the network, will equal the current through the branch in which the source was originally located if the source is placed in the branch in which the current I was originally measured.The location of the voltage source and the resulting current may be interchanged without a change in current. The theorem requires that the polarity of the voltage source have the same correspondence with the direction of the branch current in each position.
45 The current I due to the voltage source E was determined The current I due to the voltage source E was determined. If the position of each is interchanged, the current I will be the same value as indicated.The total resistance is
46 For the network in Fig. 9. 108, which corresponds to that in Fig. 9 For the network in Fig , which corresponds to that in Fig.9.106(b),