Presentation on theme: "Be prepared to give me three reasons why you AGREE or DISAGREE with the statement below. Does anonymity on the web give people too much license to heckle."— Presentation transcript:
1 Be prepared to give me three reasons why you AGREE or DISAGREE with the statement below. Does anonymity on the web give people too much license to heckle and torment others?
2 ArgumentAn argument expresses a position on an issue or problem and supports it with reasons and evidence.Being able to evaluate arguments will help you distinguish between claims you should accept and those you should reject.
3 Parts of an argument Claim (thesis) Reasons Support Evidence The writers position on the issue or problemSupportAny material used to prove your claim.ReasonsDeclarations made to justify an action, decision or belief.EvidenceSpecific references, quotations, facts or examples that support a claim. (statistics, research etc…)Counter ArgumentAn argument made to oppose another argument. A good argument anticipates opposing claims and provides counter arguments.
5 Persuasive Techniques Persuasive techniques are used to sway an audience to believe or act a certain way.Commercials, political speeches and newspaper opinion pieces all use these.
6 Persuasive Techniques Page 656 Persuasive Technique /DefinitionExampleBandwagon AppealTestimonial“Plain Folks”TransferEthical AppealAppeals to pity, fear or vanityLoaded Language
7 Persuasive Techniques From -The Gift of Life (page 657) Speech by Tommy Thompson This month in Fresno, California, members of the Hispanic community gathered to remember 19-year-old Maribel Cordova. Maribel had received an identification card this year and told her mother she wanted to become a donor. Two weeks later, a damaged blood vessel in her head tragically cut her life short. Because of Maribel’s selfless act, others lived. A 35-year-old man from Northern California received her lungs. A 66-year-old Southern California woman got her liver These are the human experiences of hope out of loss, of life out of death, that touch and motivate us, that drive us to do everything within our power to promote organ and tissue donation. Through education, outreach, science and the vitally important work of people like you, we will reach that future when organ donation is, quite simply, a fact of life.
8 Warm-UpWho Proof: he Ex: Who (he) was singing? _________________________________________ Whom Proof: him Ex: She said this to (him) whom?
10 Logical Reasoning http://shmoop There are two different ways to use reasoning: deductive and inductive.Deductive reasoning starts with a general theory, statement, or hypothesis and then works its way down to a conclusion based on evidence.Inductive reasoning starts with a small observation or question and works its way to a theory by examining the related issues. (bottom up)
11 Logical FallaciesLogical Fallacies-are common errors in reasoning that will undermine the logic of your argument.
12 Fallacies Page R24Slippery Slope-This is a conclusion based on the premise that if A happens, then eventually through a series of small steps, through B, C,..., X, Y, Z will happen, too, Red Herring Non-Sequitur Post Hoc Bandwagon Ad Hominem False Authority
13 Slippery Slopeif A happens, then eventually through a series of small steps, through B, C,..., X, Y, Z will happen, too,Red HerringThis is a diversionary tactic that avoids the key issues,Non-Sequituran argument in which its conclusion does not follow from its premises.Post Hocassumes that if 'A' occurred after 'B' then 'B' must have caused 'A.BandwagonThere is truth in numbersAd HominemThis is an attack on the character of a person rather than his or her opinions or argumentsFalse Authoritytry to get readers to agree with us simply by impressing them with a famous name or by appealing to a supposed authorityHasty Generalizationgeneral statement is made on the basis of insufficient evidence or on the basis of only a few examples.
14 Biasa "slant"—a prejudice, or a particular point of view that's based more on opinions than facts.A writer may reveal a strongly positive or negative opinion about an issue by presenting only one way of looking at it.A write with a strong bias will have evidence heavy on only one side. Like an unbalanced scale.
15 EvidenceBecause I said so" only works for our parents. Ordinary non-parental types have to actually back up their arguments with evidence if they want people to get on board with their train of thought.
16 Types of EvidencePersonal Experience- If you have a lot of experience with something, people may believe the arguments you make based on that experience.Stats and Facts- The beauty of basing an argument on stats and facts is that anyone can do it. Find some credible sources whose stats and facts back up what you're saying, and voilà: You've got evidence.
17 Evaluating EvidenceHow do you know if your sources are credible— believable and authoritative—or not?Consider the following:AuthorityPurpose/Intended AudienceObjectivity
18 Evaluating Sources: Authority/objectivity Who wrote the text?What are the authors credentials?Is there bias?If it’s a Web Site:Can you contact the author?Who does the author work for?
19 Purpose/Intended Audience What is the purpose of the text?Who is the intended audience of the text?