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Sustainable Energy Security from Fast Breeder Reactors

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Presentation on theme: "Sustainable Energy Security from Fast Breeder Reactors"— Presentation transcript:

1 Sustainable Energy Security from Fast Breeder Reactors
P. Puthiya Vinayagam and P. Chellapandi Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research Kalpakkam, India 6th Nuclear Energy Conclave Organised by India Energy Forum at New Delhi on 14th October 2014

2 FBR : A Vital Stage in Indian Nuclear Power Program
Provides a perfect link covering the natural nuclear resources of India Effective utilisation of uranium – better resource management Long term energy supply Higher growth rate with breeding Waste management - Incineration of radioactive waste from spent fuel and reduction of long term storage requirements Enhanced performance parameters – high temp of operation leading to higher thermodynamic efficiency Closed fuel cycle program is essential in the 2nd and 3rd stage Nat U Pu & Depleted U U233 Th Stage I Stage II Stage III Pu FBRs : Inevitable for long term security & sustainability of nuclear power

3 Growth and Waste Minimization Strategy
Higher growth rate possible only if fuel generation is more; Hence, breeders are essential (with high breeding ratio) Recycling & Waste Minimization Effective incineration with higher energy spectrum; FBRs are high energy systems Key Parameters: Burnup, Breeding Ratio & Doubling Time (Growth)

4 FBR Program in India FBR program started with construction of test reactor – Fast Breeder Test Reactor with French know-how Prototype scale reactor : PFBR 500 MWe - Indigenous Design & Construction – Under commissioning Comprehensiveness in development of Design based on systematic R&D Synthesis of Operating Experiences National & International Collaborations Emphasis on sustaining quality human resources Future FBR Design : Improved economy & enhanced safety

5 Fast Breeder Test Reactor
FBTR, in operation since 1985, is the flag-ship of IGCAR and is the test bed for fast reactor fuels and materials. 22 campaigns were completed so far for various irradiation programs. Training of PFBR operators in progress 40 MWt 13.5 MWe Loop type (Pu-U)C fuel Major Achievements High burnup experience from mixed carbide fuel (165 GWd/t) PFBR MOX fuel tested and design demonstrated (112 GWd/t) Structural materials irradiation program Irradiation testing of advanced fuel types (vibrocompacted MOX fuel) Sodium systems performance is excellent and confidence in operation Material and fuel irradiation for other Indian reactors which are under development

6 Evolution of SFR Power Reactor Concepts
Adopting Innovative Features Improved Economics and Enhanced Safety MFBR 1000 MWe FBR 1 & MWe MOX, Pool, Twin units, Indigeneous Metal fuel Demonstration Fast Reactor – 500 MWe Same reactor concepts, Indigeneous Design, Mfg. and Safety review Experience Proven Prototype Concepts FBR-600 MWe Preliminary Conceptual Design options worked out Power : 600 MWe with expanded core Targets : Higher breeding ratio compared to PFBR Vessel size : same as PFBR Reactor Assembly design concepts : same as FBR1&2 Core type: Heterogeneous as an option Advantage : Existing MOX technology & economy PFBR MWe MOX , Pool type, Indigeneous

7 Design Approach for Future FBRs
Improved economy - Higher reactor power (600 MWe – Specific capital cost reduction) - Core optimisation for higher breeding ratio (not fuel inventory alone) - Specific material inventory reduction (t/MWe) (~ 20% in 316LN & carbon steel, ~ 15% in Ferritic steel, ~ 6% in sodium) - Simplified systems and components (e.g fuel handling) - Integrated manufacture & erection - reduction of gestation period -Twin units sharing non-safety systems (cost reduction) -Steam generator (longer length ) & Standardized turbine Enhanced safety - Addition of passive features in shutdown systems & addition of 3rd system based on liquid absorbers / B4C granules - Enhanced reliability of decay heat removal systems with addition of passive features - Enhanced in-service inspection and repair features No major R&D requirement for Design as well as Technology development beyond those planned for 500 MWe reactors

8 FBR-600 MWe : Plant Parameters
PFBR FBR-600 Power, MWe 500 600 Fuel MOX Reactor coolant inlet/outlet temp, oC 397 / 547 397 / 557 Core layout Homogeneous Heterogeneous No. of enrichment zones 2 1 Fissile enrichment, % 20.7 / 27.7 29.5 Fissile inventory, kg 1980 3310 Breeding ratio 1.05 1.13 Secondary loops No. of Primary Sodium Pump 3 No. of IHX 4 No. of Secondary Sodium Pump No. of SG / loop (tube height, m) 4 (23 m) 3 (30 m) Steam temp/Pressure (oC / MPa) 490 / 17 510 / 17 Main vessel diameter, m 12.9 Load factor, % 75 85

9 Strategy for the Development of Metal Fuel Reactors
Pin and subassembly level irradiation in FBTR mainly to demonstrate pin production, reprocessing and re-fabrication technologies Irradiation of a few subassemblies in PFBR after demonstrating the stable operation at rated power levels Re-fabrication of pins for both FBTR & PFBR irradiation pins in an integrated facility Accumulating operating experiences through demonstration plant Metal Demonstration Fast Reactor (MDFR), preferably of medium size plant with reasonable breeding Deriving technological maturity on pyro metallurgical recycle technology in industrial scale Demonstration of closed fuel cycle mode through MDFR Series construction of MWe plants

10 Metallic Fuel Development
Doubling time: 30years for oxide, 12 years for metal (ternary fuel) and 8 years for improved metallic fuel (binary fuel without Zr) Substantial Core Metallic Fuel in FBTR Pin Irradiation in FBTR Subassembly Irradiation in FBTR Experimental Fast Reactor Metallic Fuel Design 1000 MWe Units Reference compositions: U-19%Pu-6%Zr (sodium bonded) U-15% Pu (mechanically bonded) Sodium bonded EU-6%Zr and U-Pu-Zr pins fabricated and are under irradiation in FBTR Physicochemical property measurements and clad compatibility studies under way

11 Scenario for Metal Fuel Power Reactor
Assessment with optimum pin diameter 8 – 8.5 mm for growth Based on preliminary assessments with a matrix of case studies Parameter Sodium Bond Mech Bond 10 % Zr 6 %Zr 0 % Zr LHR, W/cm Breeding Ratio (including ext. blanket ) 1.2 – 1.25 1.30 – 1.35 1.4 – 1.45 Burnup, GWd/t Sodium Void Reactivity coeff, $ 4.5 – 5.0 5.0 – 5.5 5.5 – 6.0 Fissile enrichment zones (500/1000) 2 / 3 No of SA (500 MWe) 180 195 220 Na outlet temp oC Spent fuel storage Sodium Water Reprocessing Pyro Purex

12 Plant Parameters : A Comparison (MOX & Metal)
Unit PFBR MDFR-500 Reactor thermal power MWt 1253 1350 Electrical output (Gross) MWe 500 Gross thermal efficiency -- 40 37.5 Fuel PuO2-UO2 U-Pu-6%Zr Coolant Sodium Concept of Pri. Na circuit Pool Reactor coolant inlet temp. K (oC) 670 (397) 633 (360) Reactor coolant outlet temp. 820 (547) 783 (510) Steam temp. at SG outlet 766 (493) 736 (463)

13 Closed Fuel Cycle for PFBR
Closure of fuel cycle of PFBR is essential to make it self-sustaining Thermal reactor Plutonium will be used for building of more FBRs. Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Facility (FRFCF) being located at Kalpakkam. FRFCF would be a ‘first of its kind’ facility in the country Co-location of the facility with reactor would reduce cost due to transport and also avoid security issues Basic technologies required for the facility is available Designed to augment additional capacity to meet the requirements of two more 500 MWe FBRs to be built at Kalpakkam site. FRFCF – Bird’s Eye View

14 Sustainability Consideration Minor Actinide Management – A scenario
MA Burner – design to burn self-production and external MA feed; MA Burnt ~ 100 kg/GWey MA produced ~ 20 kg/GWey Net Transmutation ~80kg/GWey Study based on Indian power reactor program Metal fast reactors are ideal for MA burning Introduction of MA Burner together with power production at an appropriate time

15 Summary Fast Breeder Reactors – Essential for Energy Security and Sustainability Experience from FBTR operation and PFBR design, manufacture, construction & safety review have given confidence for FBR deployment in series in closed fuel cycle mode. No technological constraints are foreseen. Towards higher growth rate, R&D on metal fuel with high breeding potential along with associated fuel cycle technologies is in progress.

16 Thank You for your attention

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