Presentation on theme: "By Paula Jacobsen Chapter 12"— Presentation transcript:
1 By Paula Jacobsen Chapter 12 The Education Team: Positive, Effective Interdisciplinary CollaborationBy Paula JacobsenChapter 12
2 The Challenge of Programming for Students with ASDs Students with ASDs have different ways of communicating, processing information, and understanding language than neurotypical studentsTherefore, recognizing their challenges and strengths and determining appropriate expectations is not always easy
3 Successful Programming for Students with ASDs The likelihood of developing appropriate expectations increases when interdisciplinary team members work together to understand the studentEach person brings to the table his or her expertise and his or her set of experiences with the student
4 The Interdisciplinary Education Team ParentsStudentSpecial education teacherGeneral education teacherSchool psychologistSchool administratorSpeech-language therapistOccupational therapistBehavior specialistOutside professionals
5 Engaging the Student in the Collaboration Process The student is more likely to be engaged in the collaboration process if other team members maintain positive, accepting, respectful, problem-solving relationships with himThe student is less likely to engage if he believes that the adults are primarily interested in gain his compliance
6 Formal Opportunities for Collaboration Student Study Team (SST)Convened when parents or teachers have concerns about a student who has not yet been evaluated or identified as having special education needs
7 Formal Opportunities for Collaboration 504 Plan TeamA 504 plan is for students who can function adequately in general education with accommodationsTeam is responsible for planning and monitoring progress
8 Formal Opportunities for Collaboration Individualized Education Program (IEP) TeamFor students who have been identified as eligible for services (special education placements, OT, etc.)Team is responsible for developing and monitoring goals, plus accommodations and/or modifications
9 Informal Collaboration With or without a formal team, informal collaboration between teacher, parents, and any others who work with the student can facilitate understanding and enhance communication
10 Areas for Collaboration Language and CommunicationFor lower-functioning students with ASDs, their efforts at communication can sometimes be difficult to understand, even by those who know them wellFor higher-functioning students, pragmatic challenges that affect learning, communication, and relationships are not always obviousTeam members should work together to ensure that unreasonable expectations are not being set
11 Areas for Collaboration Social-Emotional IssuesWhen students with ASDs are taught new social skills, they often have difficulty generalizing these lessons from one setting to anotherTeam members can support the student’s needs, self-awareness, and generalization of skills
12 Areas for Collaboration BehaviorSome students with ASDs have little awareness of their emotional and behavioral escalationTeam can:Help each other (and, ultimately, the student) to recognize warning signsWork with the student throughout day, using clear expectations and pre-arranged cues
13 Areas for Collaboration Academics and LearningCollaboration can help everyone understand and accept what a student knows and how he learnsSharing “what works” helps teachers to use the most effective interventions, modifications, and accommodationsEach teacher doesn’t have to start from scratch
14 Areas for Collaboration Academics and Learning (cont)The most effective way to prepare for the future is to keep the student from being too overwhelmed to function in the presentThe best way to help the student function in the present is to ask or require of her only what she can doCollaboration helps all team members understand what the student can and can’t do
15 Preparation and Planning for Effective Team Meetings Sharing data in advance allows all team members to prepare for a meaningful, problem-solving processAssessment resultsObservationsPossible goals and benchmarksPreparing the student for the meeting allows him to consider what issues he’d like to see addressed
16 Formal Assessments Results of formal assessments should: Be an accurate reflection of the studentBe consistent with and help explain what team members’ experience with the studentIf they’re not, every effort should be made to understand the inconsistencyThe team members’ diverse expertise can help find the answer
17 Why Formal Assessments May Be Inaccurate Does the student generally do better or worse on a test than in the classroom?Does the student have difficulty answering if he’s not sure of the answer?Does the test address more concrete questions, whereas class assignments delve into more abstract issues?
18 Why Formal Assessments May Be Inaccurate Can the student answer questions about rules of pragmatics, but not apply them in real-life situations?Is the student dependent on a particular cue that wasn’t available during testing?
19 Formal and Informal Observations All team members should discuss their observations at team meetingsWhen a formal, written observation report is written, it should differentiate between:Descriptions (concrete observations)Impressions (attempts to interpret what the behaviors mean about and to the student)
20 Formal and Informal Observations Suggestions, recommendations, and questions for the team to address should logically follow from the descriptions and impressionsIf observations are not consistent across team members, possible reasons for the inconsistencies must be explored, just as with assessments
21 Quality ObservationsShould include examples of when the student is doing well and what the teacher may be doing to support that successNoting when unusual behaviors (e.g., rocking) occur in conjunction with desired behaviors may help the team recognize them as problem-solving, rather than problematic behaviors
22 Goals and BenchmarksThe most meaningful and useful goals and benchmarks are based on an understanding of what what the student does and does not understandNot just what he can or cannot doBenchmarks are most achievable when they address the very smallest steps that come next
23 Teams Can Work Together to Improve Goals One team member suggested:“Brandon will increase awareness of and use of abstract language and thought”Together, the team improved that goal to read:“Brandon will differentiate questions of fact and opinion.”
24 Teams Can Work Together to Write Better Benchmarks Rather than this broad, ambitious benchmark:“During discussion of a story, Brandon will answer questions such as ‘What do you think about …?’ and ‘What might happen next?’ with one prompt 50% of the time.”The team collaborated to come up with smaller, more focused benchmark:“Brandon will identify questions of opinion, possibility, or personal preference as questions that do not have a right or wrong answer, one out of four attempts.”
25 Long-Term GoalsRather than simply recording parents’ long-term goals for their child, the team should discuss them in the context of the student’s current functioning, includingMaladaptive functioningMissing skillsThen, small steps toward improved skills and functioning can become the short-term goals and benchmarks
26 Factors That Contribute to Positive, Effective Collaboration Team members are open to hearing, reflecting on, and trying to understand each participant’s observations and concerns.
27 Factors That Contribute to Positive, Effective Collaboration 2. Team members make an effort to understand the student (his strengths and challenges and how they impact his learning), as well as his responses to academic, social, and behavioral expectations at school.
28 Factors That Contribute to Positive, Effective Collaboration 3. Team members work to understand and show respect for the student’s perspective, whether or not it conforms to that of the team members or the student’s classmates, and work to help the student learn about the perspectives of others.
29 Factors That Contribute to Positive, Effective Collaboration 4. Team members are interested in and willing to provide support and develop expectations that the student can meet (a manageable environment).
30 Conclusions The best plan for a student with ASDs allows him to be who he is,experience an educational environment he can manage, and(step by small step) learn to live and function adequately in the world as it is
31 ConclusionsThe likelihood of success increases when team members work together to understand the student.