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Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) Instructor: Dr. Fang (Daisy) Tang

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1 Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) Instructor: Dr. Fang (Daisy) Tang

2 What is CSS? CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets
Styles define how to display HTML elements Styles are normally stored in Style Sheets Styles were added to HTML 4.0 to solve a problem External style sheets can save a lot of work External style sheets are stored in CSS files Multiple style definitions will cascade into one Example: my homepage Another example: (.html)

3 Multiple Ways to Define Style
External Style Sheet (.css files) Internal Style Sheet Inline Styles Examples: More: default style, CSS changed by JavaScript

4 Multiple Styles Cascade Into One
What style will be used when there is more than one style? Browser default External style sheets are included Embedded styles (inside the <head> tag) override external styles Inline styles (inside an HTML element) override both embedded and external styles Styles modified with JavaScript override all other styles

5 CSS Style Rule p { font-size: x-large ; background-color: yellow }
property names declarations selector string declaration block

6 Selector Strings Type selector: ID selector:
Element type, such as body, p, hr, etc. See previous example Multiple element types using the same style are separated by comma h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6 {background-color:purple} ID selector: #p1, #s1 {background-color: blue} <p id=“p1”> … </p> <span id=“s1”>…</span> id values are case-sensitive

7 Sector Strings, Continue …
Class selector: .myitalic {font-style: italic} .myred {color: red} <span class=“myitalic myred”> … </span> class values are case sensitive multiple classes can be applied, separated by space All but a few elements, such as html, head, and elements that appear as content of head, have the class attribute ID and class selectors can be prefixed by an element type name p.right {text-align: right} p#left {text-align: left} <p class=“right”> … </p> <p id=“left”> … </p>

8 Selector Strings, Continue …
A selector within the content of certain element types ul span {color: green}: applies to a span element within a ul element ul ol li {letter-spacing: 1em}: applies to an li element within an ol element that is within a ul element CSS comments /* This is a comment */ p { text-align: center; /* This is another comment */ color: black; font-family: arial }

9 How to Insert a Style Sheet?
External style sheet <head> <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="mystyle.css" /> </head> Internal style sheet <style type="text/css"> hr {color: sienna} p {margin-left: 20px} </style> Inline style <p style="color: sienna; margin-left: 20px"> This is a paragraph </p>

10 CSS Basics Background Text Font Border Outline Margin Padding List

11 CSS Advanced CSS dimension CSS classification CSS positioning
CSS pseudo-class CSS pseudo-element CSS media types

12 Font Generic font families defined in HTML and CSS are:
Serif Sans-serif Monospace Cursive Fantasy There are a lot other font families, but might not be well supported

13 How to Select a Font Family?
Rules-of-Thumb Don’t use more than 3-4 fonts on any one page Don’t change the font in mid sentence unless you have a very good reason Sans-serif for online, serif for print Monospace for typewriter and code Script and fantasy for accents Sans-serif fonts are the basis of your site, for example: Arial, geneva, helvetica, lucida sans, trebuchet, verdana Verdana is a font family that was actually invented for use on the web

14 Selecting Font, Continue
Use serif fonts for print If you have print friendly versions of your site, use serif fonts Examples: garamond, georgia, new york, times, times new roman Monospace for bode examples Use it to provide instructions, give examples, or imply typewritten text Examples: courier, courier new, lucida console, monaco Example:

15 More Case Studies of CSS
from CSS

16 Case Study Understanding CSS “float”

17 Case Study Tableless layouts
There are many potential problems about using table for layout Frames can also be substituted by CSS

18 Case Study Fixed width layouts vs. Liquid layouts Fixed width layouts:
Fixed width layouts: The width of the entire page is set with a specific numerical value Liquid layouts: The width of the entire page is flexible depending upon how wide the viewer’s browser is

19 Case Study How to build a 3-column layout: Steps: Draw your layout
Steps: Draw your layout Create and style a Container element Use a Headline Tag for the Header To get 3 columns, start by building 2 columns Then add 2 columns inside the wide second column Add in the Footer Add in your personal style and content

20 Free Web Templates

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