2 What is an Exoskeleton?Powered machine that typically consists of an outer framework that is worn by a personNo invasive surgeriesCreated to enhance strength, mobility, and endurance for paraplegics or anyone with lower extremity damageAlso used by people with dangerous, tiring jobs, such as soldiers or even firefighteresAble to work for extended periods of timeDependent on specific battery life
3 History of Exoskeletons 1st Exoskeleton created in 1966 called the Hardiman1987: Monty Reed, a retired soldier who broke his back, begins working on Lifesuit, an implement for physical therapy. In 2003, he completed a 5k road race with Lifesuit.1990: Power Assist Suit was created by Japan's Institute of Technology. It was meant for nurses to help them carry their patients2004: Bleex was created to allow soldiers to hold a large amount of weight on their backs. It consisted of two robotic legs which move in sync with the user's legs2008: Ratheon created the most innovative real world exoskeleton, called the XOS, which was made to give soldiers extreme amounts of strength and endurance.
4 Bleex created for soldiers in 2004.XOS created in 2008.
5 Ekso BionicsFounded in 2005 by members of the Berkeley Robotics and Human Engineering Lab at the University of CaliforniaWork to create powered exoskeletons for both the military and just the average personHave created the exoclimber, the exohiker, HULC, and lastly the Ekso
6 This is the HULC (Human Universal Load Carrier), which was introduced to the military by Ekso Bionics in This allows soldiers to carry up a 200 lb load, while reducing the amount of energy the soldier needs perform this task.
7 Ekso Exoskeleton First commercially available product of Ekso Bionics FDA ApprovedCreated in 2010: 6 years to developWearable powered exoskeleton targetingpeople with lower extremity weakness orparalysisAs of right now, it's only used in 15rehab centers in the US
8 Ekso SkeletonAssembled mainly of aluminum, and include motors, sensors, joints, custom circuitry, and softwareEkso is powered by 4 electric motors, meaning there are 4 seperate moving componentTypical prosthetics have one moving componentTwo motors at the hips and two at the kneesPowered by battery pack sitting on the backTwo lithium batteriesComputer system between the two batteries acting as the control center15 sensors
9 How it worksThe Ekso uses the shift of a person's weight to activate sensors, which then initiate stepsThe battery powered motors in the suit drive the legsImportant due to lack of neuromuscular movementSoftware allows for patients to walk just their first sessionThe weight is specifically transferred to the ground rather than the user's body
10 Not only physical, but also mentally assisting. It allows users to finally be able to stand up and get out of their chairs.
11 3 Major Walk ModesFirstStep- Involving a physical therapist with a push button. The person progresses from sitting to standing, with the aid of either a walker or crutchesActiveStep- User is able to have greater control of their steps using buttons on their crutches or walkerProStep- Steps are achieved when the user moves their hips forward and shifts them laterally. The software is able to recognize that the user is correctly positioned and will take a step.
12 Limitations Only used in 15 rehab centers in the US No at home use right nowVery expensivRehab centers pay an initial 100, ,000$ with a 10,000$ annual contractBattery poweredOnly for patients under 220 lbs and between 5'2-6'4
13 Future Become an in home mobility device, similar to a wheelchair Greater battery lifeLess expensiveSmaller and more lightweight
14 References"Ekso Bionics." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 14 Nov Web. 16 Nov"Ekso Bionics' Robotic Suit Eyes-on (video)." Engadget. Steve Dent, 12 Mar Web. 16 Nov"Ekso- Advancing Human Motion." Initiation of Forward Leg Movement.” Universityhealthsystem.com. Web.Gannon, Matthew, Edythe McNamee, and Madison Park. "Exoskeleton Allows Paraplegics to Walk." CNN. Cable News Network, 01 Jan Web. 16 NovJensen, Dallas, Kit Eaton, and Kit Eaton. "App Smart | Enhance Your Music." The New York Times. The New York Times, 12 Nov Web. 16 Nov. 2014Mertz, Leslie. "The Next Generation of Exoskeletons: Lighter, Cheaper Devices Are in the Works." IEEE Xplore. N.p., July Web. 16 Nov