3- Pragmatics is the study of how more gets communicated than is said. It explores how a great deal of what is unsaid is recognized. 4. Pragmatics is the study of the expression od relative distance. It deals with what determines the choice between the said and the unsaid. 1- DEFINITIONS AND BACKGROUND Pragmatics is concerned with four areas: 1-Pragmatics is the study of speaker meaning. It has more to do with the analysis of what people mean by their utterances than what the words or phrases in those utterances might mean by themselves. 2- Pragmatics is the study of contextual meaning.It has to do with how the context influences what is said.
3- Pragmatics is the study of how more gets communicated than is said. It explores how a great deal of what is unsaid is recognized. 4. Pragmatics is the study of the expression of relative distance. It deals with what determines the choice between the said and the unsaid.
Syntax, semantics and pragmatics Syntax is the study of the relationships between linguistic forms, how they are arranged in sequence, and which sequences are well-formed; regardless of reference or user of the forms. Semantics is the study of the relationships between linguistic forms and entities in the world (words connect to things); and between verbal descriptions and states of affairs in the world, regardless of who produces that description.
Pragmatics is the study of the relationships between the linguistic forms and the users of those forms. The advantage of pragmatics: one can talk about people’s intended meaning, their assumptions, their purposes, and the kind of actions that they are performing when they speak. The disadvantage: it is very difficult to analyze these human concepts in a consistent and objective way. (cf. ex. P.4)
Regularity People tend to behave in regular ways when it comes to using language. Regularity derives from the fact that: 1- people are members of social groups and follow general patterns of behavior expected within the group. 2- people within a linguistic community have similar basic experiences of the world and share a lot of non-linguistic knowledge.
The pragmatics wastebasket For a long period in the study of language, there has been a very strong interest in the formal systems of analysis to discover the abstract principles that lie at the very core of language. By focusing on the abstract universal features of language, linguists and philosophers of language tended to push any notes they had on everyday language use to the edges. Those notes ended up in the wastebasket and defined negatively as the stuff that wasn’t easily handled within the formal systems of analysis.
Ex. The duck ran up to Mary and licked her. Syntactic analysis would be concerned with the rules that determine the correct structure and exclude any incorrect orderings. (cf. ex. ) Meaning is not important in syntax. Semantics is concerned with meaning features and truth-conditions of propositions expressed in sentences.