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ICS Embedded Architecture: Final Project Spring 2011 Harold Bautista Hans Yeager Shannon Kesner Vaidehee Padgaonkar Video Conferencing Across.

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Presentation on theme: "ICS Embedded Architecture: Final Project Spring 2011 Harold Bautista Hans Yeager Shannon Kesner Vaidehee Padgaonkar Video Conferencing Across."— Presentation transcript:

1 ICS Embedded Architecture: Final Project Spring 2011 Harold Bautista Hans Yeager Shannon Kesner Vaidehee Padgaonkar Video Conferencing Across

2 Project Overview Goal: Demonstrate video conferencing across BeagleBoards Presentation Topics o Hardware o Operating System o SW Development o User App o Performance o Demo Timeline: [February]Obtained Hardware and Booted OS [March] Basic Peripheral Check-Out and Select OS [April/May] Compare User Applications Work on Cross-Compile Resolve Audio on BeagleBoard

3 Hardware Peripherals Used a BeagleBoard-xM ($150) w/ 1GHz ARM® Cortex™-A8 Also used a USB mouse ($10), USB keyboard ($10), monitor Some webcams were plug-and-play o Logitech Quickcam o Microsoft Lifecam Cinema Complete list of hardware components in back-up

4 Host Platform Host platform used for o Formatting and burning images onto SD card o Validating setups (distinguish if BeagleBoard was culprit) o Compiling code for user app and kernel Key Learnings o It’s very easy to format the wrong drive (i.e. your HDD  ) o Backup your system before any development work begins! Various options to run Ubuntu on host platform o Dedicated machine o USB Pendrive (16GB) o Parallels 4 (more information in back-up)

5 Cross-Compile Goal: compile C code on x86 host platform for ARM based BeagleBoard “Building a cross-toolchain for use in embedded systems is a scary prospect, requiring iron will, days if not weeks of effort, lots of Unix & GNU lore, and sometimes a willingness to take dodge shortcuts.” ~ Dan Kegel Author of Crosstool Building Embedded Linux Systems, 2 nd edition, O`Reilly, 2008, pg 103 Libraries and kernel on target must match those used to build cross-tool Cross-compile with school machine worked (only tested for static libs) ~ Thanks for the tip, Mark! Crosstool-ng works for dynamic & static libs on x86 host

6 Operating System Selected Ubuntu 10.10 netbook version (“relatively” light-weight) Operating SystemObservations Angstrom+ Stable linux build that comes with BeagleBoard, - No GUI by default + Ethernet working ? Audio and video not tested Android - Unstable on BeagleBoard + GUI available by default - Ethernet not working - Audio continued after video for app was stopped Ubuntu+ Stable on BeagleBoard + GUI available by default + Ethernet working +/- Video working, but initial audio issues

7 Audio Challenges - Overview Audio in and Audio out did not seem to work by default in Ubuntu Audio out o Bug filed on Ubuntu site: Audio disabled by default o Mixer settings need to be modified Used alsamixer to modify capture and playback settings “Audio In” is “line in” and requires amplification Proved usb webcam could be used to record voice Details in back-up

8 User Application Open-source gave flexibility that application could be compiled for arm/Linux Java (platform-independent) so would not have needed cross-compile Java potentially slower apps because the byte codes get interpreted real-time We ultimately selected Empathy for the user application Empathy supports text, voice, video Two Google talk accounts were used for Empathy login ApplicationComments SkypeNot open source and does not run on arm-linux. Big Blue ButtonJava and open source. Required web server. EkigaC and open source. Could not establish connection. LinphoneC and open source. Audio-only for arm-linux. EmpathyC and open source. Pre-installed with Ubuntu netbook 10.10.

9 Empathy Performance on BeagleBoard BeagleBoard is “dog” slow! Video lags because of the frame generation from the ARM Less lag with video received from host Audio works stand-alone, but not during Empathy call

10 Memory Utilization and Work Load Not memory limited Not OS back-ground task limited CPU limited w.r.t. Empathy itself Empathy Not Running: 0.2-0.5 load, 270MB memory, 0 swap Empathy Running: 1.8-4.4 load, 340MB memory, 0 swap

11 Demo Due to the lack of a network port in the classroom… Initiating the call… In the middle of the video chat…

12 What Went Well Starting Early o Early feasibility before setting project goals o Deciding on and ordering hardware in February o Booting a few OS by end of February to kick-start OS selection Selecting a Stable OS (Ubuntu Netbook 10.10) o Peripherals worked out-of-the-box (including webcams) o Lot of support sites and precedence Collaboration o Each had our own setups to work on independent items o Frequent group sessions with four platforms

13 What We Would Have Done Different It is a large effort to bring up the development environment o Majority of the time was spent setting up the infrastructure o The rest of the time was spent on evaluation options for user apps o Little time left for core development work on the project More up-front research, to determine earlier… o That Skype couldn’t compile for any target since it is not open-source o That cross-compile for arm can be done via school machines o Evaluated user apps performance earlier and enable audio conferencing only Host Platform Learnings o You need one to code/compile on BeagleBoard is too slow o Back up your host platform!!! o Teammates reformatted wrong device (HDD, Pendrive)

14 Back Up

15 Hardware Components Used BeagleBoard-xM 5V Power Supply 4GB SD Card USB Wired Keyboard USB Wired Mouse Speakers Headsets w/ Mics Logitech Quick Cam and Microsoft Monitor w/ HDMI input HDMI-to-HDMI or HDMI-to-DVI-D cable Ethernet Cable

16 Audio Challenges – Audio In “Audio in” on the BeagleBoard was actually a “Line in” and requires amplification o Microphones produce weak electrical signals that must be amplified to line level o This meant that a direct mic-in connection from a headset would not work o With a direct input connection from a headset, audio in was never heard (recorded and played back) The power amplifier amplifies the signal to levels that can drive headphones or in this case the TPS65950 Audio Codec on the Beagleboard o A hardware amplifier needed to be built in order to use the “Audio in” directly o The next step if time remained was to design an amplifier for the mic input “Line in” proven functional on Beagleboard by connecting headphone output of an iPhone to the Audio in jack of the BeagleBoard with a cable. o This provided an amplified signal to the Audio in jack o In Ubuntu the input could be recorded and then played back and heard on the audio out jack. Also, as an alternative proved usb webcam could be used to record voice

17 Audio Challenges – Audio Out Audio out was disabled on Ubuntu o Meerkat Maverick 10.10 release of Ubuntu chosen for project has Audio out disabled by default on BeagleBoard-xM platforms o Ubuntu Bug #651302 Due to bug, Audio out needs to be enabled and configured using Alsamixer o Alsamixer settings need to be modified to unmute HeadsetL Mixer AudioL2 and HeadsetR Mixer AudioR2 mixer settings o Alsamixer settings need to be modified to adjust volume using DAC2 Analog and Headset volume controls

18 Parallels 4 Works great with Windows 7 (ultimate) & no boot loader Allocate # CPUs, memory, etc... to (Ubuntu) virtual machine Enable/Disable HDD (Windows) file-system from being visible to (Ubuntu) virtual machine Can mount “image” files (in Windows' file system) as “discs” in (Ubuntu) virtual machine

19 Java on BeagleBoard “Hello World” java code compiled on development platform Code wouldn’t compile on board, but pre-compiled code ran To run java application on BeagleBoard, run: sudo apt-get install openjdk-6-jre

20 Cross-Compile Links http://kegel.com/crosstool/ http://buildroot.net/ http://www.ros.org/wiki/code_sourcery_arm_gnueabi http://beagleboardxm.blogspot.com/2011/01/building-crosstool-ng-on-ubuntu-1010.html http://www.scratchbox.org/documentation/general/tutorials/introduction.html http://trac.cross-lfs.org/ http://www.electronsonradio.com/?p=36 http://crosstool-ng.org/ Tried several... finally got crosstool-ng working

21 Crosstool-ng Cheat Sheet p.1 All of the cross compiler executables end up in ~/x-tools/arm-cortex_a8-linux-gnueabi/bin So you must add that to your path (instead of $PRJROOT/tools/bin) inorder to do the final compile of your "hello_world.c" program. YOU MAY USE THE ATTACHED "x-tool-config-file" TO COMPARE AGAINST THE ".config" FILE YOU MAKE WITH THE STEPS BELOW. IF YOU GET STUCK, JUST USE THE ATTACHED FILE AND RENAME IT TO $PRJROOT/tools/.config PRIOR TO THE ct-ng build COMMAND. =========================================================== SET UP YOUR PATHS & ENV VARIABLES; ADDED THESE TO MY ~/.profile export PROJECT=bb4 export PRJROOT=/home/ /${PROJECT} # export PRJROOT=/home/hyeager/${PROJECT} export TARGET=arm-unknown-linux export HOST=i686-cross-linux-gnu export PREFIX=${PRJROOT}/tools export TARGET_PREFIX=${PREFIX}/${TARGET} PATH="$PATH:$PRJROOT:$PREFIX/bin:$PRJROOT/build-tools/bin"

22 Crosstool-ng Cheat Sheet p.2 unix> source ~/.profile CREATE THE PROPER DIRECTORY STRUCTURE BY mkdir THE SUB-DIRECTORIES OF YOUR $PRJROOT unix> cd unix> mkdir $PRJROOT unix> cd $PRJROOT unix> mkdir bootldr build-tools debug doc images kernel project rootfs sysapps tmp tools unix> echo $PRJROOT /home/hyeager/bb4 unix> ls $PRJROOT bootldr build-tools debug doc images kernel project rootfs sysapps tmp tools THIS IS NEEDED BECAUSE THE TOOL IS GOING TO DOWNLOAD A LOT OF TAR FILES INTO THIS HARD CODED LOCATION. IF YOU DON'T HAVE THIS, IT SHOULD STILL WORK, BUT IT WILL HAVE TO DOWNLOAD THE FILES EVERY TIME (IF IT TAKES YOU MORE THAN ONE TRY).

23 Crosstool-ng Cheat Sheet p.3 u nix> mkdir ~/src unix> cd $PRJROOT/build-tools unix> sudo apt-get install mercurial unix> sudo apt-get install libtool unix> sudo apt-get install texinfo unix> hg clone http://crosstool-ng.org/hg/crosstool-ng unix> cd crosstool-ng unix>./configure --prefix=$PRJROOT/build-tools/ unix> make unix> make install unix> cd $PRJROOT/tools THIS GIVES YOU A HELP MENU FOR THE ct-ng TOOL... unix> ct-ng help THIS SETS UP THE.config WITH ALL THE SETTINGS VERY CLOSE TO WHAT IS NEEDED FOR THE BEAGLE BOARD. unix> ct-ng arm-cortex_a8-linux-gnueabi SAVE THAT CONFIGURATION SO YOU CAN COMPARE WITH ANY CHANGES YOU MAKE... unix> mv.config.config_original NOW MAKE A COUPLE OF CHANGES TO THE.config FILE: unix> ct-ng menuconfighttp://crosstool-ng.org/hg/crosstool-ng

24 Crosstool-ng Cheat Sheet p.4 WITH "Paths and misc options --->" SELECTED PRESS ENTER down-arrow until "Number of parallel jobs" IS SELECTED AND PRESS ENTER right-arrow (TO SELECT "Exit") AND PRESS ENTER (TO GO UP A MENU LEVEL) TYPE THE NUMBER OF PROCESSORS YOUR UNIX SYSTEM HAS AVAILABLE FOR COMPILING -- I TYPED "4" & PRESS ENTER. down-arrow until "Operating System --->" IS SELECTED AND PRESS ENTER down-arrow until "Linux kernel version (2.6.36.4) --->" IS SELECTED AND PRESS ENTER down-arrow until "2.6.35.13 (longterm)" IS SELECTED AND PRESS ENTER right-arrow (TO SELECT "Exit") AND PRESS ENTER (TO GO UP A MENU LEVEL) right-arrow (TO SELECT "Exit") AND PRESS ENTER SELECT "Yes" AND PRESS ENTER TO WRITE THE CHANGES TO THE.config FILE. NOW YOU CAN SEE THE DIFFERENCES IN THE TWO CONFIG FILES. YOU NEED THE kernel 2.6.35.13 IN ORDER TO WORK WITH THE MAVERICK 10.10 IMAGE INSTALL (SEE LINK BELOW). IF YOU TRY TO USE kernel 2.6.36.4 YOU WILL GET A SEGFAULT & A MESSAGE THAT YOUR KERNEL VERSION IS TOO OLD. unix> diff.config.config_original NOW BUILD THE CROSS-TOOL (DOWNLOADS ALL THE SPECIFIED TOOLS, COMPILES & INSTALLS THEM...) THIS TAKES A WHILE (SEE COMMENT BELOW BELOW)... unix> ct-ng build

25 Crosstool-ng Cheat Sheet p.5 I HAD SOME PROBLEMS WITH -- HERE IS WHAT I RAN INTO AND HOW I WORKED AROUND THEM. HOWEVER, ONE OTHER PERSON DIDN'T HAVE ANY OF THESE PROBLEMS. IF YOU GET AN ERROR "Could not retrieve 'cloog-ppl-0.15.9' THEN GOTO http://gcc-uk.internet.bs/infrastructure/ AND DOWNLOAD THE FILE INTO YOUR ~/src DIRECTORY IT SEEMS THE GNU SERVER FOR THIS WAS DOWN WHEN I TRIED IT -- BUT IT WORKED THE NEXT DAY WITHOUT A PROBLEM. unix> ct-ng build IF YOU GET A HANG DURING NCURSES... THERE IS SOME PROBLEM WITH "tic" AND "ncurses" I HAD AN OLDER VERSION OF ncurses INSTALLED ON MY HOST SYSTEM. I TRIED SEVERAL THINGS, BUT MAKING SURE MY HOST SYSTEM HAD THE NEWER VERSION OF ncurses THAT WAS CONSISTENT WITH THE ONE ON THE CROSS COMPILER. -C http://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/ncurses DOWNLOAD "ncurses-5.9.tar.gz" to ~/src http://gcc-uk.internet.bs/infrastructure/ http://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/ncurses

26 Crosstool-ng Cheat Sheet p.6 SAVE IT THE CONTENTS OF THE LINK TO $PRJROOT/build-tools/crosstool-ng/scripts/build/debug.sh CLEAN UP THE LINE NUMBERS ETC... YOU MAY NEED TO UPGRADE THE ncurses VERSION YOUR HOST SYSTEM IS USING TO BE THE SAME AS THE VERSIO N YOU'RE TRYING TO INSTALL INTO THE CROSS COMPILER. unix> ct-ng build ============================================================= ============================================ WAIT A WHILE -- WITH 4 PROCESSORS IT TAKES ABOUT 30min, WITH AN OLDER DUAL CORE PROCESSOR COULD BE 5-6 TIMES SLOWE R. AT THE END I STILL GET A BUILD DURING THE CLEAN-UP STAGE, BUT ALL OF THE COMPILERS ARE ACTUALLY CONSTRUCTED. ============================================================= ============================================

27 Crosstool-ng Cheat Sheet p.7 # NOW LETS TEST IT OUT unix> cd $PRJROOT/project unix> vim hello_world.c #include int main() { printf("Hello World.\n"); printf("The Cross Compiler FINALLY works -- YEAH BABY!!!\n"); return 0; } unix> arm-cortex_a8-linux-gnueabi-gcc hello_world.c -o hello_world_staticlibs.exe -static unix> arm-cortex_a8-linux-gnueabi-gcc hello_world.c -o hello_world_dynamiclibs.exe NOTICE THERE IS A LARGE SIZE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE TWO EXECUTABLES. *staticlibs.exe HAS ALL THE REQUIRED LIBRARIES INCLUDED IN THE EXECUTABLE. NOW MOVE THE TWO *.exe FILES TO A USB DRIVE AND MOVE THEM TO THE BEAGLE BOARD AND TRY TO EXECUTE THEM BOTH. THEY'RE BOTH WORKING WITH THE MAVERIC IMAGE FROM THE FOLLOWING WEB PAGE: https://wiki.ubuntu.com/ARM/OMAPMaverickInstall THE KERNEL VERSION IN THE MAVERICK IMAGE ON THIS SITE IS 2.6.35.22 THE KERNEL IMAGE USED IN THE CROSS COMPILER ABOVE IS 2.6.35.13 BUT THIS WAS CLOSE ENOUGH … (AT LEAST FOR A SIMPLE "hello world" PROGRAM). https://wiki.ubuntu.com/ARM/OMAPMaverickInstall


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