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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009 Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach – 7 th edition Chapter 1 Speaking With Confidence This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: · any public performances or display, including transmission of any image over a network; · preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; · any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Steven A. Beebe & Susan J. Beebe
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009 “I’ll pay more for a person’s ability to speak and express himself than for any other quality he might possess” - Charles M. Schwab
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009 Why Study Public Speaking? Empowerment Achieves desired goals. Is “advantage” over competition. Shows confidence. Shows conviction.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009 Employment Corporations want skilled speakers: to adapt information, to be organized, and to keep listeners interested. Communication: top skill sought by employers.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009 Public Speaking Differs From Conversation Public Speaking is Planned More practice. More preparation. More research.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009 Public Speaking is Formal Less slang & casual language. More physical distance between speaker and audience. More controlled gestures and movements.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009 Speaker & Audience Roles Clearly Defined Expectations well-established. Behaviors stable. Speaker and audience follow rules more.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009 The Communication Process Communication as Action Linear, one-way messages. Source: encodes message. Message: what is said & how it is said. Channel: how message is transmitted. Receiver: decodes message. Noise: interferes with message. Internal. External.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009 The Action Model of Communication:
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009 Communication as Interaction As message is sent, feedback to sender is provided by receiver. Communication happens within a context: Context: environment/situation in which speech occurs.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009 Communication as Transaction Communication happens simultaneously. Sender also receives message. Receiver also sends message.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009 The Rich Heritage of Public Speaking 4 th Century B.C. – The “Golden Age” of Rhetoric Rhetoric: use of words and symbols to achieve a goal.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009 15 th Century – Public speaking used mostly by clergy.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009 18 th Century – Public speaking used by American patriots to promote independence.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009 19 th Century – Public speaking plays role in abolition and suffrage movements.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009 20 th Century – Television becomes a force in public speaking. War & civil rights issues.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009 21 st Century – Technology & media revolutionize how people communicate.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009 Public Speaking & Diversity Different audiences have different expectations. Speakers must adapt to audiences. Audience-centeredness is key.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009 Improving Your Confidence Nervousness is normal. Public speaking number one in highest anxiety.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009 Understand Your Nervousness Brain triggers body. Communication apprehension (CA): fear of speaking. Styles of CA: Average: normal heart rate. Insensitive: lower heart rate. Inflexible: higher heart rate. Confrontation: high to normal heart rate.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009 Nervousness – Audience cannot see nervousness. Use anxiety to your advantage.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009 Build Your Confidence Before your speech: Don’t delay preparing. Learn as much as you can about your audience. Pick a comfortable and familiar topic. Rehearse your speech. Present a structured speech.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009 Other advice Be familiar with introduction and conclusion. Simulate actual speech conditions. Breathe deeply. Think & act calm. Picture positive outcomes. Reassure yourself mentally (with a pep talk).
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009 Finally… During the speech: Focus on content, not fears. Look for supportive audience members. After the speech: Reflect on positives. Seek other speaking opportunities.
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