Presentation on theme: "Logic Models. A logic model is your program ROAD MAP. Where are you trying to go? How are you trying to get there? What will tell you that you’ve arrived?"— Presentation transcript:
A logic model is your program ROAD MAP. Where are you trying to go? How are you trying to get there? What will tell you that you’ve arrived?
The accountability era If you don’t measure results, you can’t tell success from failure What gets measured gets done If you can see success, you can reward it If you can reward success, you won’t reward failure If you can see success, you can learn from it If you can recognize failure, you can correct it. If you can demonstrate results, you can win public support. Re-inventing government, Osborne and Gaebler, 1992
The Logic Model A picture of your program: what you are putting into the program, what you are doing, and what you are trying to achieve Clarifies the strategy underlying your program Builds common understanding, especially about the relationship between your actions and any results Communicates what your program is (and is not) about Forms a basis for evaluation
The Logic Model Inputs The resources dedicated to or consumed by the program Activities The actions that the program takes to achieve desired outcomes Outputs The measurable products of a program’s activities Outcomes The benefits to clients, communities, systems, or organizations Program Goal: overall aim or intended impact How are activities using the resources? Why? So what?
Example Logic Model Inputs Dental Clinic Coordinator Community Health Director Staff dentist Staff pediatrician Medical providers Money for supplies Activities Training Develop curriculum Two one-hour didactic trainings to medical providers in oral health assessment One-on-one training to medical providers on oral health Outreach Order dental supplies for packets Make up packets Distribute to parents at end of each visit Outputs Training # of two-hour trainings held # of one-on-one trainings held # of medical providers trained Outreach # of parents/children receiving packets Outcomes Medical providers demonstrate accurate oral health assessment, education and prevention activities More children receive high- quality oral health assessment, education and prevention activities during well-child visits Parents/children are more knowledgeable about oral health and caring for children’s teeth Reduced incidence of cavities in children at the community health center Program Goal: To improve the oral health of low-income children who receive primary care in a community health center
The Logic Model: A Series of “If-Then” Statements InputsActivities Certain resources are needed to run your program IF you have access to them, THEN you can accomplish your activities IF you can accomplish these activities THEN you will have delivered the services you planned IF you have delivered the services as planned THEN there should be benefits for clients, communities, systems or organizations OutputsOutcomes
Chain of Outcomes Activities Training Develop curriculum Two one-hour didactic trainings to medical providers in oral health assessment One-on-one training to medical providers on oral health Outreach Order dental supplies for packets Make up packets Distribute to parents at end of each visit Outputs Training # of two-hour trainings held # of one-on-one trainings held # of medical providers trained Outreach # of parents/children receiving packets Short- Term Outcomes Medical providers demonstrate accurate oral health assessment, education and prevention activities Parents/children are more knowledgeable about oral health and caring for children’s teeth Project Goal: To improve the oral health of low-income children who receive primary care in a community health center Inter.- Term Outcomes More children receive high- quality oral health assessment, education and prevention activities during well-child visits Long- Term Outcomes Reduced incidence of cavities in children receiving care from the community health center
Program Need What problematic condition exists that demands a programmatic response? Why does it exist? For whom does it exist? Who has a stake in the problem? What can be changed? Review research, evidence, knowledge-base. What other efforts have, or are attempting to, address this need? Traps: Assuming we know cause: symptoms vs. root causes. Framing a problem as a need where need is actually a program or service. “Communities need leadership training” Precludes discussion of nature of the problem: what is the problem? Whose problem?
Statement of Need Good A recent Anytown Intermediate School District report indicates that teacher-reported classroom disruptions and conduct problems have been increasing steadily for five years at all levels (K – 12). Poor Anytown does not have a school-based program to address aggression and problem behaviors among elementary students. Rates of youth violence are increasing. (Weaknesses: circular reasoning, data sources not identified, multiple sources of data not provided)
Inputs: What resources are dedicated to or consumed by the program? Human resources Facilities Equipment/supplies Partners Technology
Activities: What is the program doing? Outreach Training Consultation Staff Development Partnership Development
Activities Good In Months 5 -12, the Program Director will provide on-going teacher support to the K-3 pilot to promote curriculum fidelity and successful integration into lesson plans. Poor Recruit and hire a development director. (Weakness: does not include who will complete the task or a timeline for completion)
Outputs: What is the program producing? (Tangible accomplishments achieved as a result of the activities) # of training workshops held # of participants attending each workshop # of partnerships formed # of policy briefings conducted # of press packets disseminated
Connecting outputs to outcomes “I think you should be more explicit here in Step Two.”
Outcomes: What difference is the program making? Outcomes are about change: New knowledge Increased skills Changed attitudes or values Modified behavior/practice Changed conditions
Chain of Outcomes Short term: are the most direct results of activities and outputs, generally achievable in one year. Intermediate: link a program’s short-term outcomes to long-term outcomes. Long term: result from the achievement of short and intermediate term outcomes and often take a longer time to achieve.
What is a reasonable level of ambition for an outcome? Consider your timeframe Consider the scope of your resources and activities Consider what other factors might influence the achievement of outcomes Be ambitious but don’t set yourself up!!
S.M.A.R.T. Outcomes : Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Results-oriented, Timed Who/whatChange/desired effect In whatBy when Families participating in the Family Resource Center Increased by 15% their use of community resources and services within one year of joining
Outcomes Good 90% of board members will increase their annual contribution to the organization each year of the project. Poor The board will increase their knowledge of fund development, be more supportive of fund development, realize the importance of their own contributions to the organization, and 100% of the board will increase their contribution by 100%. (Weaknesses: More than one main idea. 100% of board by 100% not a realistic target.)
Outcome (with indicator) Of the estimated 20 families who participate in at least 75% of the monthly personal visits, at least 75% will increase in knowledge about child development as measured by changes in pre and post scores on the XYZ test.
Evaluation is the process of asking— and answering—questions: What did you do? How well did you do it? What did you achieve? Using Your Logic Model for Evaluation
The Value of the Logic Model Process Engages stakeholders. Clarifies program theory and fills in the gaps. Builds ownership of the program. Builds common understanding about the program, especially about the relationship between actions and results.