Presentation on theme: "9.1 Cellular Respiration: An Overview"— Presentation transcript:
1 9.1 Cellular Respiration: An Overview Lesson Overview9.1 Cellular Respiration: An Overview
2 Chemical Energy and Food Energy flows into an ecosystem & exits as heat. The chemical elements essential to life are recycled!!Light energyCO2 + H2OOrganic molecules + O2Cellular Respiration in mitochondriaATPHeat Energy
3 Chemical Energy in Food Food Provides:Source of raw materials used to make new moleculesSource of energycalorie – the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius calories = 1 kilocalorie, or Calorie.Cells don’t burn glucose - gradually release energy from it.Cells break down food molecules gradually and use energy stored in chemical bonds to produce compounds such as ATP that power the activities of the cell.
4 6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O + ENERGY (ATP) Cellular RespirationOverviewCellular Respiration – process that releases energy from food in the presence of oxygen.Contains 3 Pathways:GlycolysisKrebs cycleElectron transport6O2 + C6H12O CO2 + 6H2O + ENERGY (ATP)
5 Cellular Respiration Overview If cellular respiration took place in one step, all the energy would be released at once and most lost as heat.Each of the three stages of cellular respiration captures some of the chemical energy available in food molecules and uses it to produce ATP or energy.
8 Stages of Cellular Respiration Step 1: Glycolysis-Occurs in the cytoplasm.- 1 molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing 2molecules of pyruvic acid.- uses 2 stored ATP molecules as energy- 4 ATP molecules are made during glycolysis, so a total of 2 ATP molecules are released by glycolysis as energynet gain: 2 ATPNAD+ (electron carrier) is converted to NADH.This is only 2% of the total chemical energy in glucose.
9 GlycolysisGlycolysis happens quickly & can produce 1000’s of ATPs in milliseconds.Glycolsis does not require oxygen!
10 Out 2 pyruvate; 2(3-C) 2NADH a net of 2 ATP Summary Of GlycolysisOut 2 pyruvate; (3-C) 2NADH a net of 2 ATPInGlucose (6-C)2 ATP
11 Oxidative Respiration To get the rest of the energy from the food molecules, the cell uses oxygen.Aerobic – requires oxygen.The energy-releasing pathways require oxygen, and that is the reason we need to breathe, to respire.Respiration - process that involves oxygen and breaks down food molecules to release energy.rap
12 Step 2: Kreb’s CycleTakes place in: matrix (innermost compartment)of mitochondria.Also called the Citric acid cycle.Carbon contained in pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide.This CO2 is considered a waste product and is released from the cell.Two high energy electron carriers are also generated by the Krebs cycle:NADHFADH2krebs
13 Step 2: Kreb’s Cycle Citric acid production: 1 carbon from pyruvic acid becomes part of CO2 & is released.2 other carbons from pyruvic acid rearrange to form acetyl-CoA.Acetyl-CoA combines with a 4C molecule to form citric acid.Energy extraction:Citric acid broken- more CO2 release and production of electrons.Electrons transferred to electron carriers NAD+ and FAD creating NADH and FADH2.
14 Kreb’s CycleNADH and FADH2 go on to make huge amounts of ATP (via electron transport) in the presence of oxygen, and the CO2 is eventually released when you exhale.
15 Kreb’s Cycle: energy generated Each glucose = 2 pyruvateEach glucose= 2 complete turns of Kreb’s cycle = 2 ATP
16 Summary of Kreb’s Cycle OutCO2 (as waste)NADHAcetyl-CoAInPyruvateNADCoA
17 Step 3: ETCElectron transport occurs in the intermembrane of the mitochondria.High energy electrons are passed from carriers in the Krebs cycle (NADH, FADH2) to ETC.ETC uses these high energy electrons to convert ADP into ATP or energy.
18 ETCAs electrons pass down chain, H+ ions are pumped into inter-mitochondrial space making a charge gradient.Gradient provides energy for ATP synthase to add the P group.At the end of the chain, an enzyme combines the electrons with H+ and oxygen to form water, a by-product of electron** Final e- acceptoris O2
19 ETCO2 is essential for removing low energy e-, H+ ions, & wastes of cellular respirationEvery time a pair of high energy e- move down ETC, energy is used to move H+ ions across the membrane.Cellular respiration:Total ATP= 3632 ATP
20 Total EnergyIn the presence of oxygen, the complete breakdown of glucose through cellular respiration results in the production of 36 ATP molecules.This represents about 36 percent of the total energy of glucose. The remaining 64 percent is released as heat.
21 Comparing Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis & cellular respiration- opposite processes.Photosynthesis “deposits” energy, and cellular respiration “withdraws” energy.The reactants of cellular respiration are the products of photosynthesis and vice versa.
22 Comparing Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration The release of energy by cellular respiration takes place in plants, animals, fungi, protists, and most bacteria.Energy capture by photosynthesis occurs only in plants, algae, and some bacteriaglycolysis jam
23 Energy & ExerciseAerobic cellular respiration produces 36 total ATP molecules from each glucose molecule (37% efficient).Remainder of energy from glucose is released as heat (body feels warm after exercise).Eating food: Complex carbs broken down to simple sugars that are converted to glucose.Lipids and proteins broken down to molecules that enter glycolysis or Krebs cycle.Breathing and respiration:Remember- final electron acceptor for electrons produced in respiration is oxygen.Without oxygen, all ATP synthesis in mitochondria stops and body tries to make ATP by glycolysis alone (not sufficient for most cells).