4 Why was a system needed?Long ago, parts of the human body were often used as units of measure.Egyptian “cubit” was the length from your elbow to the tip of your middle finger.
5 The length of the kings foot or the distance from the tip of his nose to his fingertips were common units of measurement.
6 See any obvious problems with this line of thought? Different from country to countryExisting measurements would change each time a new king was crownedDifferent from body part to body part
7 The metric system was created with the purpose of establishing a universal system of measurement that could easily be used by people all over the world regardless of their country of origin.
8 Metric System FactsDeveloped by the French in late 1700s and was officially adopted in 1790.Named “Le Systeme International d’Unites”; Abbreviated SIWas initially forced on all countries.The option for people to use the metric system or not in the US became legal in 1866.
9 Metric System Facts Cont’d: USA opted out of using the system.USA is the only technologically advanced country NOT using the Metric System as it’s main system of measurement; Still using the English System which is a comboEspecially important to scientists
10 Metric System Facts Cont’d: Decimal based system~ What the heck does that mean?It’s based on powers of 10, so it is very simple to use
11 The Metric units most often used by average people are…. Meter: measures lengthSecond: measures timeGram: measures massLiter: measures volumeDegree Celsius: measures temperatureYOU WILL SEE THIS AGAIN!!
12 Regardless of the unit, the entire metric system uses the same prefixes.
13 Most common prefixes Kilo – 1000 Deci – 1/10 or 0.1 Hecto – Centi – 1/100 or 0.01Deka – 10 Milli – 1/1000 0r 0.001Meter/gram/liter – 1“King Henry’s Daughter Usually Drinks Chocolate Milk”
14 Length Length is the distance between 2 points The SI base unit for length is the meter
15 LengthWe use rulers or meter sticks to find the length of objects.
16 Mass Mass is the amount of matter that makes up an object. The SI unit for mass is the gram.The mass of an object will not change unless we add or subtract matter from it.
17 ~the golf ball has more mass A golf ball and a ping pong ball are the same size, but the golf ball has a lot more matter in it.Which has more mass?~the golf ball has more mass
18 Mass A paper clip has a mass of about one gram Remember: the mass of an object will not change unless we add or subtract matter from it.
19 We will use a triple beam balance scale to measure mass. Measuring MassWe will use a triple beam balance scale to measure mass.Gravity pulls equally on both sides of a balance scale, so you will get the same mass no matter what planet you are on.
20 Weight Weight is a measure of the force of gravity on an object. The SI unit for weight is the Newton (N).The English unit for weight is the pound
22 GravityGravity is the force of attraction between any two objects with mass.Gravity depends on 2 things:Distance and Mass
23 Gravity More distance = less gravity= less weight Less distance = more gravity = more weightMore mass = more gravity = more weightLess mass = less gravity = less weight
24 Weight vs Mass Jill Earth Moon Jupiter Orbit Gravity 1 gravity 1/6th gravity2.5 gravities0 gravityMass30 kgWeight300 N50 N750 N0 N
25 JillEarthMoonJupiterOrbitGravity1 gravity1/6th gravity2.5 gravities0 gravityMass30 kgWeight300 N50 N750 N0 N** Notice that Jill’s mass never changes** Jill is a 30 kg little girl no matter where she goes or what planet she is on.
27 Volume Volume is the amount of space contained in an object. We can find the volume of box shapes with this formulaV = L x W x H
28 Volume Cont’d…In the case of box shapes, the units would be cubic centimeters (cm³).So, a box that is 2cm x 3cm x 5cm would have a volume of……30 cm³
29 Base Units The base unit for volume is the Liter. We measure volume with a graduated cylinder.
30 Graduated CylindersLiquids form curved, upper surfaces when poured into graduated cylinders (sticks to the sides)To correctly read the volume, read the bottom of the curve called the meniscus
31 Liquid VolumeWhen the metric system was created, they decided that 1 cm³ of water would equal 1 milliliter of water.That 1ml of water would have a mass of one gram.1cm³ water = 1ml water = 1 gram of water
32 Water DisplacementYou can use water displacement to find the volume of objects that are not box shaped.
33 Water DisplacementWe can put water in a graduated cylinder. If a rock causes the level to rise from 7 ml to 9 ml, the rock must have a volume of 2ml.
34 Water Mass and Volume Remember: 1 cm³ = 1 ml = 1 g What would be the mass of 50 ml of water?50 gramsHow many milliliters would you have if you were given 23 cm³ of water?23 ml
35 DensityDensity is the amount of matter (mass) compared to the amount of space (volume) an object occupies.We will measure mass in grams and volume in ml or cm³
36 Density Formula Density is mass divided by volume Density = mass / volumeRemember: all fractions are division problems
37 Density TriangleCover the property you are trying to find, and do what is left.To find density, cover the word density.You have mass over volume left. So divide mass by volume to find density
38 Density TriangleTo find mass, you cover the word mass and do what is left.You have density x volume left
39 Density Triangle To find volume, cover volume. You have mass over density left, so you divide mass by density to find volume
40 Water and DensitySince 1 gram of water has a volume of 1 ml, then the density of water will always be 1 g/ml.Ex: A kg of water will have a volume of1000 ml, so it’s density will be 1 g/ml.1000g/1000ml = 1 g/ml
46 Titanic makes it’s maiden voyage. What is the density of this enormous, steel hulled ship, dull of machinery, coal, people and all sorts of heavy things?~It’s floating, so we know that it’s density has to be less than 1 g/ml.How can that be?~It is a hollow vessel that is full of air.
47 Wreck of the TitanicThe denser the ship became, the lower it settled into the water.What is the density of the ship resting on the ocean floor?~must be over 1 g/ml to have gone below the surface
48 Review How much does the prefix Hecto- represent? ~ 100 What is the SI unit for measuring length?~ meterWhat 2 things does the force of gravity depend on?~ mass and distance
49 Review What are the 2 units that volume can be measured in? ~ cm³ for box shapes~ml for liquidsWhat is the density of water?~ 1 g/ml
50 Dimensional Analysis is a way to convert measurements between different units to help compare them.
51 BUT First, we will practice the easy way…moving the decimal or the “ladder method” KHD U DCMKilo Hecto Deka UNIT (m, l, g) Deci Centi Milli
52 How do you use the “ladder” method? 123KILO 1000 UnitsHECTO 100 UnitsDEKA 10 UnitsDECI 0.1 UnitMeters Liters GramsCENTI 0.01 UnitMILLI UnitHow do you use the “ladder” method?1st – Determine your starting point.2nd – Count the “jumps” to your ending point.3rd – Move the decimal the same number of jumps in the same direction.4 km = _________ mStarting PointEnding PointHow many jumps does it take?4.__.1__.__.= 4000 m
53 Try these conversions using the ladder method. Conversion PracticeTry these conversions using the ladder method.1000 mg = _______ g 1 L = _______ mL 160 cm = _______ mm14 km = _______ m 109 g = _______ kg 250 m = _______ km
54 Metric Conversion Challenge Write the correct abbreviation for each metric unit.1) Kilogram _____ 4) Milliliter _____ 7) Kilometer _____2) Meter _____ 5) Millimeter _____ 8) Centimeter _____3) Gram _____ 6) Liter _____ 9) Milligram _____Try these conversions, using the ladder method.10) 2000 mg = _______ g 15) 5 L = _______ mL 20) 16 cm = _______ mm11) 104 km = _______ m 16) 198 g = _______ kg 21) 2500 m = _______ km12) 480 cm = _____ m 17) 75 mL = _____ L 22) 65 g = _____ mg13) 5.6 kg = _____ g 18) 50 cm = _____ m 23) 6.3 cm = _____ mm14) 8 mm = _____ cm 19) 5.6 m = _____ cm 24) 120 mg = _____ g
55 WHAT YOU WANT ___________________ WHAT YOU HAVE Dimensional AnalysisWHAT YOU WANT ___________________ WHAT YOU HAVE
56 Dimensional analysis is also called the factor-label method of problem solving. It is a way of setting up a problem in a constant fashion that breaks the problem down into simple steps. Each step is a ratio that must equal 1, thus canceling out some preceding unit.
57 Examples11 mm = ______ cm261 g = _______ kg9474 mm = _______ cm