2 Chapter 7Groups and Teamwork 2007 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
3 Learning Outcomes Describe the five stages of group development. After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to:Describe the five stages of group development.Contrast roles and norms, and specify four reasons norms are enforced in organizations.Explain how a work group becomes a team. 2007 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
4 Learning Outcomes Describe self-managed teams and virtual teams. Define social loafing and explain how managers can prevent it. 2007 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
5 FUNDAMENTALS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR What is a Group?Two or more freely interacting people with shared norms and goals and a common identity.Why don’t mere aggregates of people fit this definition?See page 138Drawing from the field of sociology, a group is defined as two or more freely interacting individuals who share collective norms and goals and have a common identity. 2007 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
6 2007 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. See Table 7-1 on page 138Formal and Informal Groups. If a group is formed by management to help the organization accomplish its goals, then it qualifies as a formal group. These are usually called work group, team, committee or task force. An informal group exists when the members’ overriding purpose for getting together is friendship. These groups often overlap. Managers are split on whether friendship helps or hinders productivity.There are two basic functions of groups: organizational and individual. Table 7-1 lists these functions. 2007 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
7 The Group Development Process Five stages of group development:Forming – “ice-breaking” stage; uncertainty high; mutual trust low; if no formal leader asserts authority, emergent leader will step inStorming – time of testing leader’s policies & assumptions; subgroups form; subtle forms of rebellion occur; many groups stall in this stageNorming – group cohesiveness (a “we” feeling) developsSee pagesThe Group Development Process. Groups and teams in the workplace go through a maturation process, such as one would find in any life-cycle situation (e.g. humans, organizations, products). Tuckman’s model is often cited—see Figure 7-1. The five steps are forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.Stage 1: Forming is the ‘ice-breaking’ stage where group members are uncertain and anxious about such things as their roles, who is in charge and the group’s goals.Stage 2: Storming is the stage of testing.Stage 3: Norming is the stage that is next where questions about authority and power are resolved through unemotional group discussions. Group cohesiveness defined as the ‘we feeling’ that binds people is a product of this stage. 2007 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
8 The Group Development Process (cont’d) Five stages of group development (cont’d):Performing – focus is on solving task problems; climate of open communication, strong cooperation, and helping behaviour; group achieves more than any one individualAdjourning – the work is done; rituals such as parties, award ceremonies, graduations can provide closureSee pagesStage 4: Performing is the activity stage where there is a climate of open communication, strong cooperation, and lots of helping behaviour.Stage 5: Adjourning is the time when the work is done and it is time to move on 2007 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
9 2007 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. See Figure 7-1 on page 139 and read pages 139 – 140 for details. 2007 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
10 Group Member RolesRoles – sets of behaviours that persons expect of occupants of a positionRole overload – when the total of what is expected from someone exceeds what he or she is able to doRole conflict – when different people expect different things from one personRole ambiguity – when an individual does not know what is expected of themSee pages 140 – 141Roles are the expected behaviours for a given position.Role overload occurs when other people’s expectations of someone exceed that individual’s ability.Role conflict occurs when other people have conflicting or inconsistent expectations of someone.Role ambiguity occurs when an individual does not know what is expected of them. 2007 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
11 Task vs. Maintenance Roles Task and maintenance roles need to be performed if a group is to accomplish anything.Task roles enable the work group to define, clarify and pursue a common purpose.Maintenance roles foster supportive and constructive interpersonal relationships. 2007 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
12 SummaryTask roles keep the group on track while maintenance roles keep the group together. 2007 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
13 2007 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. See Table 7-2 on page 141Task roles are task-oriented group behavior. These enable the work group to define, clarify and pursue a common purpose, that is keep the group on track.Maintenances roles are relationship building group behaviour. These foster supportive and constructive interpersonal relationships, that is keep the group together. 2007 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
14 NormsNorms – shared attitudes, opinions, feelings, or actions that guides social behaviour; more encompassing than roles.How Norms are Developed:explicit statements by supervisors or co-workerscritical events in the group’s historyprimacy first behaviour sets a patterncarry-over behaviours from past situationsSee pagesNorms are more encompassing than roles. Roles involve behavioural expectations for specific positions; norms help organizational members determine right from wrong and good from bad.A norm is shared attitudes, opinions, feelings or actions that guide social behaviour.If one does not conform to the norms, one can experience ostracism that is, rejection by other group members. The silent treatment by friends would be an example.How norms are developed. Norms are developed in four ways:explicit statements by supervisors or co-workers,critical events in the group’s history,primacy or the first behaviour pattern that emerges in a group often sets group expectations, andcarryover behaviours from past situations. 2007 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
15 Think About ItWhat norms are currently in effect in all of your classes?Do these norms help or hinder your ability to learn?Norms can affect performance either positively or negatively. 2007 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
16 Ostracism Rejection by other group members. Also known as “the silent treatment”Group members positively reinforce those who adhere to current norms with friendship and acceptance. 2007 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
17 Norms (cont’d) Why Norms Are Enforced: Help the group or organization surviveClarify or simplify behavioural expectationsHelp individuals avoid embarrassing situationsClarify the group’s or organization’s central values and/or unique identitySee page 143Why norms are enforced. Norms tend to be enforced by group members when they help the group or organization survive; when they clarify or simplify behavioural expectations; when they help individuals avoid embarrassing situations; and when they clarify the group’s or organization’s central values and/or unique identity. 2007 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
18 TEAMS, TRUST, & TEAMWORK Team a small number of people with complementary skillscommitted to a common purpose, performance goals, & approachhold themselves mutually accountableSee pagesThe team approach to managing organizations is having diverse and substantial impacts on organizations and individuals. Teams promise to be the cornerstone of progressive management for the foreseeable future. Therefore, everyone will need to brush up on his or her team skills. Both women and younger employees seem to thrive in team-oriented organizations.A Team is More Than Just a Group. A team is defined as ‘a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. 2007 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
19 A Team is More Than Just a Group A work group becomes a team when:Leadership becomes a shared activity.Accountability shifts from strictly individual to both individual and collective.The group develops its own purpose or mission.Problem solving becomes a way of life, not a part-time activity.Effectiveness is measured by the group’s collective outcomes and products.See pagesA group becomes a team when:Leadership becomes a shared activity.Accountability shifts from strictly individual to both individual and collective.The group develops its own purpose or mission.Problem solving becomes a way of life, not a part-time activity.The group’s collective outcomes and products measure effectiveness. 2007 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
20 2007 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. See Table 7-3 on page 145 2007 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
21 Trust: A Key Ingredient of Teamwork Trust – reciprocal faith in others’ intentions and behaviour; must be earned; cannot be demandedThree Dimensions of Trust:Overall trust – expecting fair play, the truth, & empathyEmotional trust – faith that someone will not misrepresent you to others or betray confidenceReliableness – belief that promises & appointments will be kept and commitments metSee page 146These have not been good times for trust in the corporate world. Trust itself is defined as reciprocal faith in others’ intentions and behaviour. In short, we get what we give so trust begets trust and distrust begets distrust.Three dimensions of trust are:overall trust - expecting fair play, the truth and empathy,emotional trust - faith that someone will not misrepresent you to others or betray a confidence, andreliableness - the belief that promises and appointments will be kept and commitments met. 2007 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
22 How to Build Trust Six guidelines for building trust: Communication - keep everyone informed; give feedback; tell the truth.Support - be available and approachable.Respect - delegate; be an active listener.Fairness - give credit where due; objectively evaluate performance.Predictability - be consistent; keep your promises.Competence - demonstrate good business sense and professionalism.See page 146 2007 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
23 Self-Managed TeamsSelf-managed Teams – groups of employees granted administrative responsibility for their workResearch concludes that self-managed teams have:A positive effect on productivityA positive effect on attitudes such as responsibility & controlNo significant effect on attitudes such as job satisfaction & organizational commitmentNo significant effect on absenteeism or turnoverSee pages 147 – 148Self-managed teams are defined as groups of workers who are given administrative oversight for their work. Administrative oversight involves delegated activities such as planning, scheduling, monitoring, and staffing.Self-managed teams are variously referred to as semi-autonomous work groups, autonomous work groups and super teams. When self-managed teams are used, organizations should be prepared to undergo revolutionary changes in management philosophy, structure, staffing, and training practices and reward systems. The traditional notions of managerial authority and control are turned on their heads. 2007 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
24 Virtual TeamsA virtual team is a physically dispersed task group that conducts its business through modern information technology.Meaningful face-to-face contact, especially during early phases of the group development process, is absolutely essential.See pages 148 – 149Virtual Teams. A virtual team is a physically dispersed task group that conducts its business through modern information technology. These teams are very flexible and efficient because the people are driven by information and skills and not by time and location.Research insights on virtual teams reveal that they follow similar patterns to face-to-face groups; Internet chat rooms create more work and yield poorer decisions than face-to-face meeting and telephone conferences; successful use of groupware requires training and hands-on experience; and inspirational leadership has a positive impact on creativity in electronic brainstorming groups.Practical considerations. Virtual teams are not a cure-all. Meaningful face-to-face contact, especially during early phases of the group development process, is absolutely essential. 2007 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
25 Social LoafingSocial loafing – decrease in individual effort as group size increases. It occurs when:the task is perceived to be unimportant, simple, or not interestinggroup members think their individual input is not identifiablegroup members expect co-workers to loafSee page 150Why do Work Teams Fail? The tendency for reduced effort as group size increases was identified many years ago, and this continues to be a problem today. More recently, specific problems related to self-managed teams have been identified.Social loafing is defined as the decrease in individual effort as group size increases.Social loafing theory and research. it is assumed that social loafing effects are explained by equity of effort; loss of personal accountability; motivational loss due to the sharing of rewards; and coordination loss as more people perform the task. Social loafing occurs when the task is perceived to be unimportant or simple, group members think that their individual output is not identifiable, or when groups members expect their co-workers to loaf.Practical implications of the research findings are that social loafing is not an inevitable part of group effort, and that management can curb this threat to group effectiveness by making sure that tasks are challenging and perceived as important. 2007 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
26 Attributes of High-Performance Teams Participative leadershipShared responsibilityAligned on purposeStrong communicationFuture-focusedFocused on taskCreative talents appliedRapid response to opportunitiesSee page 151Team building encompasses many activities intended to address work team failure and improve the internal functioning of work groups. The goal of team building is to create high-performance teams with the following eight attributes:Participative leadership. Creating an interdependency by empowering, freeing up, and serving others.Shared responsibility. Establishing an environment in which all team members feel as responsible as the manager for the performance of the work unit.Aligned on purpose. Having a sense of common purpose about why the team exists and the function it serves.Strong communication. Creating a climate of trust and open, honest communication.Future focused. Seeing change as an opportunity for growth.Focused on task. Keeping meetings focused on results.Creative talents. Applying individual talents and creativity.Rapid response. Identifying and acting on opportunities. 2007 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.