2 Introduction: Phonology No human language exploits all phonetic possibilitiesEvery language makes its own particular selection from the range of all possible ___________
3 Introduction Phonological Representation Phonology /fənɒlədʒi/ :The components of grammar that determines the _______of speech sounds and that ______both the sound ______ and the systematic phonetic variation found in language.
4 Introduction Phonological Representation The task of phonologists:To ________and ________the systematic phonetic patterns found in individual languagesTo discover the ___________ ____that underlie the patterning of sounds across human languages.
5 Introduction Phonological Representation Three major phonological units:___________
6 Introduction Phonological Representation Wdσ σs è g m F n t- syllabic+ sonorant…Word levelSyllable levelSegment levelFeature level[ ]
7 Introduction Phonological Representation Segment:___________ ___________Feature:Features correspond to articulatory or acoustic ___________such as [voice] or [strident]Smallest building block of phonological structureSyllable:A syllabic element – usually a vowel- and any preceding or following segments that are associated with it
8 Segments in Contrast Contrast All speakers knows which segments contrast and which ones don’t …Segments are said to _______when:Their presence alone may distinguish forms with different meaning from each otherEx: sip [sɪp] and zip [zɪp]Ex: hit [hɪt], hat [hæt] & hot [hɒt]
9 Segments in Contrast Minimal Pairs The first step in the analysis of the phonology of language is to establish which sounds in that language are in ______with each otherIn order to establish contrast, it is necessary to examine the ___________ of sounds in words and to compare word meanings.This can be accomplished through the ______________
10 Segments in Contrast Minimal Pairs Minimal pair: Consists of _______with ___________ that differ by ______ ____ ______found in the same position in each form.Example:sip [sɪp] and zip [zɪp]Therefore the segments [s] and [z] contrast
11 Segments in Contrast Minimal Pairs – English Consonant Example:
12 Segments in Contrast Minimal Pairs – Definitions Environment:The phonetic _________in which a sound occurs.Near minimal pairs:Pairs of words that have segments in nearly identical environments (ex: assure & azure)
13 Segments in Contrast Minimal Pairs – Definitions Phoneme:Segments that _______with each other ___________ _______are said to belong to separate phonemes of that languageContrastive phonological unitsNot to be confused with ________
14 Segments in Contrast Vowel Contrast in English Find words with these minimal pairs (vowels)
16 Segments in Contrast Language-Specific Contrasts Important:- Two sounds can be phonetically distinct without necessarily being phonologically distinct or contrastive.- Sounds that are contrastive in one language may not necessarily be contrastive in another.
17 Segments in Contrast Language-Specific Contrasts Example:In English [ɛ] & [æ] are contrastive (ex: Ben & ban)In Turkish (ex: the word “I” can be said [bɛn] & [bæn])
18 Segments in Contrast Practice & Homework Find minimal pairs to show contrast between all English consonants(15 phonemes)Exceptions which are hard to find:[ŋ] [h][ʔ] [ʒ]
20 Phonetically Conditioned Variation Introduction Phonetic variation is systematicOccurs most often in phonetically similar segmentsConditioned by the ___________ or environment in which the segments are found
21 Phonetically Conditioned Variation Introduction - Variation Variation occurs because segments are affected and altered by phonetic characteristics of neighboring elements or by the larger phonological context in which they occurSpeakers and listeners of any language tend to factor out this type of variation in order to focus on contrast that affect meaning
22 Phonetically Conditioned Variation Complementary Distribution In English, all Ls are not identicalDifferent sounds:[l̥̥] (voiceless l)& [l] (voiced l)Yet they do not contrastThere are no minimal pairs in which the phonetic difference [l̥̥] & [l] functions to indicate difference
23 Phonetically Conditioned Variation Complementary Distribution Examine the distribution of the two LsAll of the voiceless [l̥̥] occurs after the class of ___________ ___________Voiced [l] never occurs after voiceless stopsPredictable property of phonology in English
24 Phonetically Conditioned Variation Complementary Distribution Therefore:Since no voiced [l] ever occurs in the same phonetic environment as a voiceless [l̥] (and vice versa), we say that that the two variants of L are in ___________ ___________Table Complementary distribution of [l] and [l̥] in English[l][l̥]After voiceless stopsnoyesElsewhere
26 Phonetically Conditioned Variation Phonemes and allophones When segments are phonetically distinct, but not phonologically the same they are considered _________(predictable variants) of one _________(contrastive phonological unit).
27 Phonetically Conditioned Variation Phonemes and allophones Phonetic representation:Consists of predictable variants or allophonesPhonemic (or phonological) representation:Consists of the phonemes to which the allophones belong.Phonemic representation (phoneme)/l/Phonetic representation (allophones)[l̥̥] [l]Symbols for phonemes are placed between slashes //Symbols for allophones are enclosed in square bracket 
28 Phonetically Conditioned Variation Phonemes and allophones Are _________representations: the way in which sounds are stored in the mind.Are in your ________Allophones:Are not part of what you remember when you store a word in your mindCome out of your mouth
29 Phonetically Conditioned Variation Phonemes and allophones An important part of phonological analysis thus deals with discovering ___________ of the phonemes of language and accounting for ___________ ___________.
31 Phonetically Conditioned Variation Free Variation Various forms that do not change the meaning since they are phonetically similar.They are therefore allophones of a phonemeEx: [stɒp!], [stɒp̚] & [stɒpʔ][p!], [p̚] & [pʔ] are different allophones of the phoneme /p/Notice that the narrow transcription of these words and the different allophones are in square brackets and that the phoneme is in between slashes.Forceful articulation (Feature rep. only used in the book)Coarticulation with glottal stopExtended closure
32 Phonetically Conditioned Variation Classes & Systematic Variation Everyday speech usually _______ systematically according to phonetic classes
33 Phonetically Conditioned Variation Classes & Systematic Variation In English, liquids have _______ __ __ _____after voiceless stops and ___________ __elsewhere.GeneralStatement
34 Phonetically Conditioned Variation Classes & Systematic Variation In English, liquids and glides have ___________ ________after voiceless stops, and _________ __ ___________ elsewhere.GeneralStatement
35 Phonetically Conditioned Variation Classes & Systematic Variation One of the major goals of phonological description is the discovery of such ____ __ ________, and the formulation of the most ___________ ____possible to describe them.
36 Phonetically Conditioned Variation Canadian RaisingEnglish mid vowels and glidesLanguage-specific patterns
37 Phonetically Conditioned Variation Canadian Rising Canadian rising is another example of allophonic variation in English[aj] before the class of ____________________or in _________________[ʌ j] before the class of ________________________________________
38 Phonetically Conditioned Variation Canadian Rising [aj] before the class of ___________ or in ___________[ʌ j] before the class of ___________
39 Phonetically Conditioned Variation English Mid Vowels and glides In most dialects of English, the mid tense vowels [e] & [o] are always diphthongized[ej] & [ow][e] and [o] are both mid tense vowels[e] and [j] are both back and unrounded[o] and [w] are both back and unrounded
40 Phonetically Conditioned Variation English Mid Vowels and glides The ___________ ___________ are predictably followed by a ___________ that has the same ___________ and ___________ as the vowelsGeneralStatement
41 Phonetically Conditioned Variation Language-specific patterns Important:The phenomenon of allophonic variation is universal.However, just as the phonemic contrast found in each language are specific to that language, the actual ___________ of phonemes and allophones is also language-specific.Thus, whatever we discover for one language may not hold true for another.
42 Phonetically Conditioned Variation Language-specific patterns Nasals in Scots Gaelic:Vowels are nasal in Scot Gaelic when preceded or followed by a nasal consonant
43 Phonetically Conditioned Variation Language-specific patterns Nasals in Malay:In Malay, all vowels and glides following a nasal and not separated from it by a non-nasal consonant are nasalized (until an obstruent, liquid, or glottal is reached)
44 Phonetically Conditioned Variation Language-specific patterns English and Khmer (Cambodian) stops:
45 Phonetically Conditioned Variation Language-specific patterns English and Khmer (Cambodian) stops:
48 Phonetic and Phonemic Transcription Inventory of Vowels
49 Phonetic and Phonemic Transcription Inventory of Consonants
50 Phonetic and Phonemic Transcription Let’s Practice! Transcribe the following wordsPhonemicallyPhoneticallyDon’t forget the predictable properties mentioned on the previous slides
51 Review Contrast, phonemes and allophones Each language has a set of contrastive phonemesPhonemes themselves can have predictable variants or allophonesThere are two distinct levels of representation: phonemic level and phonetic level
52 Onset constraints and phonotactics Accidental and systematic gaps SyllableDefining the syllableOnset constraints and phonotacticsAccidental and systematic gaps
53 Syllables Introduction Definition:A syllable consists of a ___________ _ and its associated non-syllabic (less sonorous) segments.What speech sounds are more sonorous?
54 Syllables Introduction Vowels are the most sonorous soundTherefore, syllables usually have a vowel nucleus as their coreLess sonorous sounds may appear ___________ ___________
55 Syllables Introduction Native speakers of a language demonstrate their awareness of the sonority values of segments and of the syllableExamples:TelegraphAccidentSprint
62 Syllables Universal Tendencies All languages have syllablesThe shapes or syllables are governed by various kinds of constraintsBut certain universal tendencies are observable
63 Syllables Universal Tendencies Syllable nuclei usually consists of _________;Syllables usually begin with onsets;Syllables often end with codas;Onsets and codas usually consist of one consonant.Syllables usually take the shape ___________
64 Syllables Onset Constraints & Phonotactics Isn’t it interesting!Native speakers of ant language intuitively know that certain words from other languages sound unusual and they often adjust the segment sequences of these words to conform with the pronunciation requirements of their own language.Example: Russian word vprog /fprɔk/ (value, or good)[fəprɔk] – adding /ə/[prɔk] – deleting /f/
65 Syllables Onset Constraints & Phonotactics The set of constraints on how sequences of segments patternForms part of a speakers knowledge of the phonology of his or her language
68 Syllables Accidental and Systematic Gaps Gaps in the language’s vocabulary that correspond to ___________ but _________ forms called accidental gapsSometimes filled by borrowed words that fill the phonotactic constraintsEx: Kodak, taco, Zen, perestroika
69 Syllables Accidental and Systematic Gaps Gaps in the syllable structure of a language that result not by accident but from exclusion of certain sequencesExamples in English:/bz/, /pt/ & /fp/Unacceptable in one language but not necessarily another
70 Syllables Accidental and Systematic Gaps Accidental gaps:Sometimes filled by ___________ ___that fill the phonotactic constraintsEx: Kodak, taco, Zen, perestroikaSystematic gaps:English speakers often change the pronunciation of borrowed words that do not fit the phonotactic constraintsEx: Psychology & pterodactyl
71 Syllables Language-specific phonotactics Language-specific constraints, on the other hand, hold true for individual languages such as English, but they may not be found in other languages
72 Setting up the syllables ReviewSetting up the syllablesSyllabic phonologyPractice
73 Review Syllable & Onset Onset (O): Within a syllable, the longest segment of consonant to the left of each nucleus that does not violate the phonotactic constraints of the language in question (e.g., [st] forms the onset of the second syllable in hamster)
74 Review Rhyme: Nucleus & Coda Rhyme (R): The nucleus and the coda of a syllable (e.g., [ust] in the word boost)Nucleus (N): a vocalic element that forms the core of a syllable (e.g., the vowel [A] is the nucleus of the first syllable in Patrick)Coda (Co): The elements that follow the nucleus in the same syllable (e.g., [rf] in surfboard)
84 Syllables Syllabic Phonology One reason that syllables are treated as units of phonological structure is that they are relevant to stating generalizations about the distribution of allophonic features
90 Features DefinitionSegments themselves are composed of even smaller, subsegmental, phonological units known as segmentsSmallest unit of phonologyBasic building blocks of human speech soundsIndependent and coordinate phonetic elements
95 Features Features & Natural Classes By ___________ examining the phonemic contrasts of a language, we can extract the ___________ ____and use these irreducible linguistic elements to describe the phonemic inventory
105 Derivations Definitions Phonemic representations are equivalent to __________________ that speakers have of the words in their languageAlso called underlying representationPhonetic representations are equivalent to the __________________that are produced in the course of speechAlso called surface representations
106 Derivations Definitions Resulting from the application of phonological rules to underlying representationGoing from mental representations to spoken languagePhonological rules:Rules that derive phonetic representations from underlying representations, accounting for alterations among allophones
107 DerivationsThe derivation of three phonetic representations from underlying representations are illustrated bellow: