CENTER FOR AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH Infrastructure exists everywhere! Electricity is cheap (at least for now) Electricity generation is more flexible than liquid fuels: ability to easily use renewables without disrupting the automotive market! WHY USE ELECTRICITY FOR MOBILITY?
Renewables as a Share of Total Primary Energy Consumption, 2010 From EIA - International Energy Outlook 2011
CENTER FOR AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH TYPES OF VEHICLES ON ROAD TODAY Conventional Vehicles –Gasoline –Diesel Electric Vehicles –Hybrid Electric Vehicles –Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Fuel Cell Vehicles –PEM Natural Gas Vehicles –CNG, LNG So what can we expect for the future?
CENTER FOR AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH A BIG PART OF THE FUTURE… Energy Storage! What types exist? –Conventional Fuels –Compressed Gases –BioDiesel –Batteries/Capacitors –Flywheels
CENTER FOR AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH Vehicle Electrification –Electric Vehicles Example: Tesla, Nissan Leaf –Plug In Hybrids (PHEVs) and Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs) Chevy Volt, Ford Fusion Energi –Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) Toyota Prius, Honda Insight, … WHAT ARE WE SEEING TODAY? Vehicles using batteries….
CENTER FOR AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH BATTERIES IN VEHICLES What main automotive battery chemistries exist? –Lead Acid (PbA) –Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) –Lithium Ion (Li-Ion)
CENTER FOR AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH REFUELING AN ELECTRIC VEHICLE… Level 1 Charging Max Power Level: 1.3kW Specifications: 120V/10A (AC) Charge anywhere there is a socket! Level 2 Charging Max Power Level: 3.3kW - 6.6kW Specifications: 220-240V, 30A (AC) Charging stations like GE Wattstation, Blink, Coulomb Chargepoint DC Fast-charging (Level 3) Max Power level: 20+kW Specifications: Various DC levels CHΛdeMO, Combo Coupler, Tesla, etc
CENTER FOR AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH SMALL LIST OF AVAILABLE CHARGERS ABB (DC Level 2 – CHAdeMO and Combo) AddEnergie Technologies (DC Level 2 & 3 planned) Advanced Charging Technologies (A.C.T.) (DC Level 2 – dual cable CHAdeMO/Combo) Aerovironment (DC Level 2 - CHAdeMO & DC Level 3) Aker Wade (DC Level 2 - CHAdeMO) Andromeda Power (Portable DC Level 2 – CHAdeMO) BTCPower (DC Level 2) Blink (ECOtality) (DC Level 2 CHAdeMO, charging network) Coulomb Technology (DC Level 2, charging network) DBT EV Charging Solutions (DC Level 2 - CHAdeMO) Delta Electronics, Inc. (DC Level 2 – CHAdeMO) Eaton Corporation (DC Level 2 CHAdeMO) Efacec (DC Level 2 – CHAdeMO and Combo) Epyon (DC Level 2) (Now part of ABB) EvCollective (DC Level 2 – CHAdeMO; onboard battery) EVTEC AB (DC Level 2 – CHAdeMO and Combo) Fuji (DC Level 2 – CHAdeMO, 25kW) IES Synergy (DC Level 2 – CHAdeMO and Combo) JFE Engineering Corporation (DC Level 2 – CHAdeMO) Nichicon (DC Level 2 – CHAdeMO) Nissan (DC Level 2 - CHAdeMO) Primearth EV Energy CO., LTD. – maybe CHAdeMO?? Schneider Electric (DC Level 2 – CHAdeMO, 50kW) Signet Systems, Inc (DC Level 2 – CHAdeMO)
CENTER FOR AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH SAMPLE EV CHARGE TIMES AND AMOUNTS VehicleTypeEnergyMiles per Charge (all electric) Level 2 Charge Time Nissan LEAFEV24 kWh80-100 miles8 hours (3.3kW) BMW ActiveEEV32 kWh150 miles4-5 hours Ford Fusion Energi PHEV7.6 kWh10 miles2.5 hours Tesla SEV80 kWh200 miles12 hours Toyota Plug-In Prius PHEV4.4 kWh10 miles1.5 hours Chevy VoltPHEV (EREV)16 kWh40 miles4 hours NOTE: These times assume you are charging from empty!!
CENTER FOR AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH BATTERY TECHNOLOGIES OF THE FUTURE…. Metal-Air Batteries
HOW DO WE DECIDE WHAT VEHICLES WE SHOULD BUY FOR THE FUTURE?
CENTER FOR AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH We can use computer models to accurately model and predict how our vehicles will behave, consume fuel, and drive based on our preferences… MODELING AND SIMULATION SYSTEMS
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