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Presentation on theme: "ACCESS TO LAND AND HOUSING FINANCE FOR THE URBAN POOR"— Presentation transcript:

International Conference on Growth with Stability in Affordable Housing Markets  ACCESS TO LAND AND HOUSING FINANCE FOR THE URBAN POOR Technical Session IV: Urban Planning imperative for Affordable Housing  Michael Slingsby – Urban Poverty Consultant And don’t forget my sister and I

2 Discussion on three topics
Improving the management of land and assets already owned by government The provision of rental accommodation in urban areas Financial instruments for incremental and new housing for the urban poor

3 CURRENT SCENARIO Urban growth and urban poverty
One third to half of urban growth is increase in population already living in the city In Indian cities, urban poor represent 35% of the population and live on 5% of the land Slum dwellers are very efficient users of urban land Focus on improvement of existing slums through upgrading or redevelopment Little attention to access to land and housing for the urban poor in the future Range of appropriate interventions that bring about mobility in the housing market for the urban poor Affordable interventions including rental housing

4 1. Improving the management of land and assets already owned by government
Large areas of land in government ownership – state, ULB and central government agencies In UK land owned by railways redeveloped and raised huge funds in both income and capital Land for housing (marshalling yards) and stations for commercial development Government land used to raise capital and to provide land for housing and plotted development Move from urban administration (implementation of schemes) to urban management (setting strategic objectives for management of resources and targets for measuring success)

5 UK local governments now have estates and assets management departments
Reviews not only land and buildings in government ownership but also land and buildings rented or leased from others Questions? Is it fit for purpose to deliver the services required If property no longer required for operational or investment purposes it is sold according to government guidelines Challenge the basis for holding or acquiring property in the traditional way, exploring partnerships and new ways of working (PPP) Efficiency in use of property, i.e. space per person Publicising analysis of land a property holdings to create comparison and competition between urban local bodies

6 Old ideas that still work for provision of land for urban poor
Sites and services schemes Seen as unsuccessful because not large enough, captured by better off because of high security of tenure World Bank Madras (Chennai) delivered 30,000 plots for EWS and made impact on local market Very poor did not benefit due to construction of core houses Captured by better off later on because of lack of supply City Improvement Trusts delivered serviced plots of land Incremental development scheme in Hyderabad, Sind supported organised squatting

7 Arunmbakkam Chennai sites and services scheme

8 Mogappair sites and services scheme Chennai


10 Provision of rental accommodation in urban areas
A large percentage of urban poor families live in rented accommodation both within slums and outside slums NSSO survey about 35% Figures for Surat, 36% and Bangalore, 55% renters Traditional response was Mumbai chawls

11 Rental Housing Many Asian cities have private sector financed and constructed purpose built rental room blocks Largely absent in India Often serviced single rooms suitable for single migrants High percentage of rooms/houses rented in slum Rented rooms in houses are large source of cheap accommodation a safety net against uncertain employment meeting household expenditure funding housing improvements a regular source of income when moving from waged employment to business pension after retirement.

12 Constraints to increase in rental accommodation
Negative government legislation Property tax and rent control Planning and building regulations Incentives to Encourage renting of rooms in existing houses Adding rooms with access to separate kitchens/bathrooms Encouraging construction of rental room blocks with common or individual sanitation facilities

13 Financial instruments for incremental and new housing for the urban poor
Majority of urban poor families build houses incrementally and raise funds from their own resources They do not have access to formal finance Increase ability to pay by renting part of house and more family members working Sell family assets such as gold to raise capital Majority of households with incomes below Rs 8,000 per month are daily wage labourers or self employed Incomes are largely undocumented and maybe subject to seasonal fluctuations Little penetration of financial services on an individual basis except for short-term productive or non productive purposes High transaction costs discourage entry into this sector of the market

14 Least cost affordable home in the market
Labour and self employed constitute a large part of the excluded households 25% of households 50% of households 75% of households Least cost affordable home in the market ~ Rs 4 Lakhs Data Source: NSSO Expenditure Survey, 2010, NCAER How India Earns, Spends and Saves, 2007

15 as well as in this case and pay
Many urban poor families building incrementally They use savings and money from relatives and friends as well as in this case Borrow from a money lender at 10% PER MONTH and pay Rs 1,000 bribe to policeman to “allow” the construction This man wanted to improve his family’s living conditions by adding another floor. He couldn’t get a regular loan and had to borrow from a money lender at 10% per month. He also had to pay Rs1,000 to a policeman to be allowed to carry out the construction. He was doing the construction work himself.


17 People take enormous risks in investing in permanent construction as evictions can take place at any time. Most have a temporary roof so it can be carried away at the time of demolition People take enormous risks in investing in permanent construction as evictions can take place at any time. Most have a temporary roof so it can be carried away at the time of eviction

18 In South and South East Asia a number of models have been developed based on wholesaling loans to organised and registered communities, who then retail the loans to members. These include Thailand’s Community Organisation Development Institute fund The Philippines Community Mortgage Programme Cambodia’s Urban Poor Development Fund Community savings and loans programmes have been established in a number of countries in the region Some mature enough to lend to communities for housing and land purchase.

Gives loans and grants to organised member communities for housing, land purchase, slum upgrading, group businesses and community revolving funds Rate of interest depends on purpose of loan Housing 2% (subsidised) , business 4%; revolving funds 6% End user pays 6-8% for housing loans Ceiling for land and housing loans put together is $9,000 (Rs 4,00,000) per family. Average loan in about US$ 6,000 (Rs 2,70,000). All loans are made collectively to the community cooperative, not to individual families.

20 Klong Lat Paa Chi Community, Thonburi
Number of houses : 90 Tenure terms : Cooperative land ownership CODI land loan : US$328,570 Infrastructure subsidy : US$128,570 CODI housing loans : $262,900 Klong Lat Paa Chi Community, Thonburi

21 3,400 households in 13 communities
Klong Bang Bua 3,400 households in 13 communities 1 m. govt 2 m people

22 Number of units : Total of 3,400 households (in 13 communities)
Land owner : Treasury Department Tenure terms : 30 year renewable lease to the Bang Bua community cooperative. Land rental rate: $2-3 per month, per unit (depending on unit size). Infrastructure costs : US$ 377,150 CODI housing loans : US$ 2.14 m (2007 figures) Welfare houses for the destitute Rental rooms for existing renters

Beneficiaries organised into a community association with minimum of 30 and maximum of 250 members Average amount per community was US$440,000 (Rs 198,00,000) Community Mortgage Programme funds informal settlers, slum dwellers or tenants of blighted areas or areas for priority development to buy land that they are living on, or where they will be relocated.

24 A maximum amount of USD 2,890 (Rs 1,30,000) for the three stages is for individual beneficiaries residing in highly urbanised areas. The loans are given to the Community Association. The loan is payable in equal monthly amortisations for a maximum of 25 years at a fixed interest rate of 6 percent per annum. The same land, which is subject of purchase, serves as the collateral for the loan.

Total capital in fund : US$ 1.92 million Source of capital : Contribution from savings group members, grant from Municipality of Phnom Penh, Prime Minister’s monthly contribution, Cambodian Red Cross, donors (Selavip, Homeless International, Misereor, ACHR-TAP) Purpose of loans : Housing, land purchase, livelihood, environmental improvement, food production, emergencies Interest charged : 8% annually (for housing and land loans); 4% annually (for bulk income generation loans to communities and networks, which on-lend at %). How it works : UPDF makes housing, land purchase, food production and income generation loans directly to communities with active savings groups (not to individuals), which manage collection and repayment of loans.

26 Mittapheap community, Phnom Penh
137 houses in Khan Toulkork Upgrading project, people straightened and paved the settlement’s main lane, laid an underground drainage system and improved houses using an upgrading grant of $6,587. 56 families who had to break parts of their houses to “re-block” and make room for the straightened road took housing improvement loans totalling $23,500.

27 COMMUNITY SAVINGS Country Coverage Members Savings Thailand
3,000 urban communities in 225 cities 1.5 million members US$ 44 million Cambodia 319 communities in Phnom Penh and 12 provincial towns 15,460 members US$240,000 Philippines 26 cities 47,930 members US$ 1.4 million Nepal 287 communities 6,710 members US$600,000 Vietnam 1,670 communities in 8 cities 29,600 members US$ 974,000 Sri Lanka (Women’s’ Bank) 22 cities 50,000 members US$9.09 million Source: Asian Coalition for Housing Rights “Savings + Funds” ACHR Newsletter, November 2007

28 ISSUES What are appropriate “financial services” for the urban poor that support their needs for incremental housing, new housing, upgrading, productive and non productive purposes and emergencies? Community savings groups have demonstrated their “bankability”? Financial instruments need to build on and compliment traditional ways of raising finance – individual or group savings, loans or grants from friends and relatives, renting rooms etc. Many community funds are multi-purpose with a mixture of short-term loans (for business) and long term loans (for land and housing) with different interest rates which can offset risks City level urban poor development funds bring together money from communities, local government, NGOs and donors


30 We hope to look like this, soon


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