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Presentation on theme: "COMPENSATION."— Presentation transcript:


2 Compensation: An Overview
Compensation - Total of all rewards provided employees in return for services Direct financial compensation - Pay received in the form of wages, salaries, bonuses, and commissions Indirect financial compensation - All financial rewards not included in direct compensation Nonfinancial compensation - Satisfaction a person receives from job itself or from work environment

3 Components of a Total Compensation Program External Environment Internal Environment
Financial Non-Financial Direct Wages Salaries Commissions Bonuses Indirect (Benefits) Legally Required Benefits Social Security Unemployment Compensation Workers’ Compensation Family & Medical Leave Voluntary Benefits Payment for Time Not Worked Health Care Life Insurance Retirement Plans Employee Stock Option Plans Supplemental Unemployment Benefits Employee Services Premium Pay Unique Benefits The Job Skill Variety Task Identify Task Significance Autonomy Feedback Job Environment Sound Policies Competent Employees Congenial Coworkers Suitable Status Symbols Working Conditions Workplace Flexibility Flextime Compressed Work Week Job Sharing Flexible Compensation Telecommuting Part-time Work Modified Retirement

4 Equity Theory Input:Outcome ratio for self
Input:Outcome ratio for referen Perception of ratios affects future performance

5 Equity in Financial Compensation
Equity - Fair pay treatment for employees External equity - Firm's employees are paid comparably to workers who perform similar jobs in other firms Internal equity - Exists when employees are paid according to relative value of their jobs within same organization

6 Equity in Financial Compensation (Continued)
Employee equity - Individuals performing similar jobs for same firm are paid according to factors unique to employee, such as performance level or seniority Team equity - More productive teams are rewarded more than less productive groups

7 Determinants of Individual Financial Compensation
Organization Labor market Job Employee

8 Compensation Policies
Pay leaders – pay higher wages and salaries Market rate, or going rate – pay what most employers pay for same job Pay followers – pay below market rate because poor financial condition or believe they do not require highly capable employees

9 The Labor Market as a Determinant of Financial Compensation
Compensation surveys Expediency Cost of living Labor unions Society Economy Legislation

10 Determining internal equity

11 The Job as a Determinant of Financial Compensation
Job itself continues to be a factor, especially in those firms that have internal pay equity as a primary consideration Organizations pay for value they attach to certain duties, responsibilities, and other job-related factors such as working conditions

12 Job Analysis and Job Descriptions
Before organization can determine relative difficulty or value of jobs, must first define content This is done by analyzing jobs

13 Job Evaluation Firm determines the relative value of one job in relation to another Point factor system most widely used Determine compensible factors Set weights for each Assign points Decide pay classifications

14 Job Pricing Placing a dollar value on worth of a job
Pay grades - Grouping of similar jobs to simplify pricing jobs Wage curve - Fitting of plotted points to create a smooth progression between pay grades Pay ranges - Minimum and maximum pay rate with enough variance between the two to allow for a significant pay difference

15 Job Pricing (Continued)
Broadbanding – Collapses many pay grades into a few wide bands or improve effectiveness Single rate system - Pay ranges are not appropriate for some workplace conditions such as some assembly line Adjusting pay rates - Overpaid and underpaid jobs

16 Pay Ranges for Pay Grades
Scatter Diagram of Evaluated Jobs Illustrating the Wage Curve, Pay Grades, and Pay Ranges Average Pay per Hour (Current Rates or Market Rates) $19.80 5 18.50 4 17.20 3 15.90 Wage Curve Pay Ranges for Pay Grades 2 14.60 14.00 1 13.30 12.90 12.00 100 200 300 400 500 Evaluated Points 1 2 3 4 5 Pay Grades Summary Evaluated Points Pay Grade Minimum Midpoint Maximum $ $ $

17 Broadbanding and Its Relationship to Traditional Pay Grades and Ranges
Average Pay Per Hour Grade 3 Grade 2 Band B Grade 1 Band A Low High Job Worth

18 Employee as a Determinant of Financial Compensation
Performance-based Pay Skilled-based Pay Competency-based Pay Seniority Experience Membership in the organization Potential Political Influence Luck

19 Primary Determinants of Individual Financial Compensation
The Organization Compensation Policies Organizational Politics Ability to Pay The Employee Job Performance Merit Pay Variable Pay Competency-Based Pay Seniority Experience Organization Membership Potential Political Influence Luck Job Pricing The Labor Market Compensation Surveys Expediency Cost of Living Labor Unions Society The Economy Legislation Individual Financial Compensation The Job Job Analysis Job Descriptions Job Evaluation Collective Bargaining

20 Performance-Based Pay
Merit pay - Pay increase given to employees based on their level of performance as indicated in the appraisal Variable pay - Compensation based on performance (bonus) Piecework – Employees paid for each unit they produce

21 Skill-Based Pay Compensates on basis of job-related skills and knowledge Employees and departments benefit when employees obtain additional skills Appropriate where work tends to be routine and less varied Must provide adequate training opportunities or system becomes a demotivator

22 Competency-Based Pay Compensates on basis of demonstrated expertise

23 Seniority Length of time an employee has been associated with the company, division, department, or job Labor unions tend to favor seniority

24 Experience Regardless of nature of job, very few factors have a more significant impact on performance than experience

25 Membership in the Organization
Some components of individual financial compensation are given to employees regardless of particular job they perform or their level of productivity Intended to maintain a high degree of stability in the workforce and to recognize loyalty

26 More factors affecting individual pay
Membership in the organization Potential Political influence Luck Compensation for special groups Team-based pay

27 Group-based pay for performance
Profit sharing – distribution of predetermined percentage of firm’s profits to employees Gainsharing – incentive payment based upon improved company performance Scanlon plan – reward to employees for savings in labor costs resulting from employees’ suggestions

28 Executive Compensation
Critical factor in attracting and retaining best managers

29 Determining Executive Compensation
Firms typically prefer to relate salary growth for the highest-level managers to overall corporate performance

30 Types of Executive Compensation
Base salary Short-term (annual) incentives or bonuses Long-term incentives and capital appreciation plans Stock option plans Indexed stock option plans Executive benefits (Perks) Golden parachutes

31 HR’s Role in Executive Compensation
HR executives who know their company’s business must play key role in assuring reasonable and ethical behavior

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