Download presentation

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1
Quantum Mechanics from Classical Statistics

2
what is an atom ? quantum mechanics : isolated object quantum mechanics : isolated object quantum field theory : excitation of complicated vacuum quantum field theory : excitation of complicated vacuum classical statistics : sub-system of ensemble with infinitely many degrees of freedom classical statistics : sub-system of ensemble with infinitely many degrees of freedom

3
quantum mechanics can be described by classical statistics !

4
quantum mechanics from classical statistics probability amplitude probability amplitude entanglement entanglement interference interference superposition of states superposition of states fermions and bosons fermions and bosons unitary time evolution unitary time evolution transition amplitude transition amplitude non-commuting operators non-commuting operators violation of Bell’s inequalities violation of Bell’s inequalities

5
statistical picture of the world basic theory is not deterministic basic theory is not deterministic basic theory makes only statements about probabilities for sequences of events and establishes correlations basic theory makes only statements about probabilities for sequences of events and establishes correlations probabilism is fundamental, not determinism ! probabilism is fundamental, not determinism ! quantum mechanics from classical statistics : not a deterministic hidden variable theory

6
essence of quantum mechanics description of appropriate subsystems of description of appropriate subsystems of classical statistical ensembles classical statistical ensembles 1) equivalence classes of probabilistic observables 1) equivalence classes of probabilistic observables 2) incomplete statistics 2) incomplete statistics 3) correlations between measurements based on conditional probabilities 3) correlations between measurements based on conditional probabilities 4) unitary time evolution for isolated subsystems 4) unitary time evolution for isolated subsystems

7
classical statistical implementation of quantum computer

8
classical ensemble, discrete observable Classical ensemble with probabilities Classical ensemble with probabilities qubit : qubit : one discrete observable A, values +1 or -1 one discrete observable A, values +1 or -1 probabilities to find A=1 : w + and A=-1: w -

9
classical ensemble for one qubit classical states labeled by classical states labeled by state of subsystem depends on three numbers state of subsystem depends on three numbers expectation value of qubit expectation value of qubit eight states

10
classical probability distribution characterizes subsystem different δp e characterize environment

11
state of system independent of environment ρ j does not depend on precise choice of δp e ρ j does not depend on precise choice of δp e

12
time evolution rotations of ρ k example :

13
time evolution of classical probability evolution of p s according to evolution of ρ k evolution of p s according to evolution of ρ k evolution of δp e arbitrary, consistent with constraints evolution of δp e arbitrary, consistent with constraints

14
state after finite rotation

15
this realizes Hadamard gate

16
purity consider ensembles with P ≤ 1 purity conserved by time evolution

17
density matrix define hermitean 2x2 matrix : define hermitean 2x2 matrix : properties of density matrix properties of density matrix

18
operators if observable obeys associate hermitean operators in our case : e 3 =1, e 1 =e 2 =0

19
quantum law for expectation values

20
pure state P = 1 ρ 2 = ρ wavefunction unitary time evolution

21
Hadamard gate

22
CNOT gate

23
Four state quantum system - two qubits - k=1, …,15 P ≤ 3 normalized SU(4) – generators :

24
four – state quantum system P ≤ 3 pure state : P = 3 and copurity must vanish

25
suitable rotation of ρ k and realizes CNOT gate yields transformation of the density matrix

26
classical probability distribution for 2 15 classical states

27
probabilistic observables for a given state of the subsystem, specified by {ρ k } : The possible measurement values +1 and -1 of the discrete two - level observables are found with probabilities w + (ρ k ) and w - (ρ k ). In a quantum state the observables have a probabilistic distribution of values, rather than a fixed value as for classical states.

28
probabilistic quantum observable probabilistic quantum observable spectrum { γ α } probability that γ α is measured : w α can be computed from state of subsystem

29
non – commuting quantum operators for two qubits : all L k represent two – level observables all L k represent two – level observables they do not commute they do not commute the laws of quantum mechanics for expectation values are realized the laws of quantum mechanics for expectation values are realized uncertainty relation etc. uncertainty relation etc.

30
incomplete statistics joint probabilities depend on environment and are not available for subsystem ! p=p s +δp e

31
quantum mechanics from classical statistics probability amplitude ☺ probability amplitude ☺ entanglement entanglement interference interference superposition of states superposition of states fermions and bosons fermions and bosons unitary time evolution ☺ unitary time evolution ☺ transition amplitude transition amplitude non-commuting operators ☺ non-commuting operators ☺ violation of Bell’s inequalities violation of Bell’s inequalities

32
conditional correlations

33
classical correlation point wise multiplication of classical observables on the level of classical states point wise multiplication of classical observables on the level of classical states classical correlation depends on probability distribution for the atom and its environment classical correlation depends on probability distribution for the atom and its environment not available on level of probabilistic observables not available on level of probabilistic observables definition depends on details of classical observables, while many different classical observables correspond to the same probabilistic observable definition depends on details of classical observables, while many different classical observables correspond to the same probabilistic observable needed : correlation that can be formulated in terms of probabilistic observables and density matrix !

34
conditional probability probability to find value +1 for product probability to find value +1 for product of measurements of A and B of measurements of A and B … can be expressed in terms of expectation value of A in eigenstate of B probability to find A=1 after measurement of B=1

35
measurement correlation After measurement A=+1 the system must be in eigenstate with this eigenvalue. Otherwise repetition of measurement could give a different result !

36
measurement changes state in all statistical systems ! quantum and classical eliminates possibilities that are not realized

37
physics makes statements about possible sequences of events and their probabilities

38
M = 2 : unique eigenstates for M=2

39
eigenstates with A = 1 measurement preserves pure states if projection

40
measurement correlation equals quantum correlation probability to measure A=1 and B=1 :

41
probability that A and B have both the value +1 in classical ensemble not a property of the subsystem probability to measure A and B both +1 can be computed from the subsystem

42
sequence of three measurements and quantum commutator two measurements commute, not three

43
conclusion quantum statistics arises from classical statistics quantum statistics arises from classical statistics states, superposition, interference, entanglement, probability amplitudes states, superposition, interference, entanglement, probability amplitudes quantum evolution embedded in classical evolution quantum evolution embedded in classical evolution conditional correlations describe measurements both in quantum theory and classical statistics conditional correlations describe measurements both in quantum theory and classical statistics

44
quantum particle from classical statistics quantum and classical particles can be described within the same classical statistical setting quantum and classical particles can be described within the same classical statistical setting different time evolution, corresponding to different Hamiltonians different time evolution, corresponding to different Hamiltonians continuous interpolation between quantum and classical particle possible ! continuous interpolation between quantum and classical particle possible !

45
end ?

46
time evolution

47
transition probability time evolution of probabilities ( fixed observables ) ( fixed observables ) induces transition probability matrix

48
reduced transition probability induced evolution induced evolution reduced transition probability matrix reduced transition probability matrix

49
evolution of elements of density matrix in two – state quantum system infinitesimal time variation infinitesimal time variation scaling + rotation scaling + rotation

50
time evolution of density matrix Hamilton operator and scaling factor Hamilton operator and scaling factor Quantum evolution and the rest ? Quantum evolution and the rest ? λ=0 and pure state :

51
quantum time evolution It is easy to construct explicit ensembles where λ = 0 λ = 0 quantum time evolution quantum time evolution

52
evolution of purity change of purity attraction to randomness : decoherence attraction to purity : syncoherence

53
classical statistics can describe decoherence and syncoherence ! unitary quantum evolution : special case

54
pure state fixed point pure states are special : “ no state can be purer than pure “ “ no state can be purer than pure “ fixed point of evolution for approach to fixed point

55
approach to pure state fixed point solution : syncoherence describes exponential approach to pure state if decay of mixed atom state to ground state

56
purity conserving evolution : subsystem is well isolated

58
two bit system and entanglement ensembles with P=3

59
non-commuting operators 15 spin observables labeled by density matrix

60
SU(4) - generators

61
density matrix pure states : P=3 pure states : P=3

62
entanglement three commuting observables three commuting observables L 1 : bit 1, L 2 : bit 2 L 3 : product of two bits L 1 : bit 1, L 2 : bit 2 L 3 : product of two bits expectation values of associated observables related to probabilities to measure the combinations (++), etc. expectation values of associated observables related to probabilities to measure the combinations (++), etc.

63
“classical” entangled state pure state with maximal anti-correlation of two bits pure state with maximal anti-correlation of two bits bit 1: random, bit 2: random bit 1: random, bit 2: random if bit 1 = 1 necessarily bit 2 = -1, and vice versa if bit 1 = 1 necessarily bit 2 = -1, and vice versa

64
classical state described by entangled density matrix

65
entangled quantum state

66
end

67
pure state density matrix elements ρ k are vectors on unit sphere elements ρ k are vectors on unit sphere can be obtained by unitary transformations can be obtained by unitary transformations SO(3) equivalent to SU(2) SO(3) equivalent to SU(2)

68
wave function “root of pure state density matrix “ “root of pure state density matrix “ quantum law for expectation values quantum law for expectation values

Similar presentations

© 2019 SlidePlayer.com Inc.

All rights reserved.

To make this website work, we log user data and share it with processors. To use this website, you must agree to our Privacy Policy, including cookie policy.

Ads by Google