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Focus Questions What is public speaking?

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Presentation on theme: "Focus Questions What is public speaking?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Focus Questions What is public speaking?
Do ordinary people do much public speaking? How do speakers earn credibility? How do credible speakers organize and support their ideas? Do many people experience speaking anxiety? How can you be a critical listener of public communication? Public Communication

2 Public Communication Public communication as enlarged conversation (James Winans, 1938) Preparation time Turn-taking delay Public speaking in everyday life Personal satisfaction to give voice Being effective citizens Linking to professional success Public Communication

3 Types of Public Speeches
Speaking to entertain To engage, interest, amuse listeners May include information about occasion Humor and offense Narrative speaking (story-telling) Speaking to inform To increase listeners’ understanding, awareness May take form of demonstration Speaking to persuade To change attitudes, beliefs, behaviors Public Communication

4 Features of Public Speaking
Greater responsibility to plan and prepare Evidence Reasoning Structure of ideas Delivery practice Less direct interaction Speaker dominates Listeners still participate “actively” Public Communication

5 Preparing and Presenting
Effective public speaking is a process, not an isolated event. The process begins with understanding of credibility and ways to earn it. Earning credibility Listener believing in a speaker and trust what is said Based on listeners perceptions of speaker’s position, authority, knowledge, dynamisms, and trustworthiness Initial credibility: Titles, experience Derived credibility: During presentation Terminal credibility: Cumulative combination of two above Public Communication

6 Preparing and Presenting
Planning Public Speeches (next slides) Researching and Supporting Public Speeches Organizing Speeches Developing Effective Delivery Public Communication

7 Planning Public Speeches
Selecting a topic Topic that you care about Appropriate to listeners Appropriate to situation Limited in scope Defining the purpose General and specific purpose Developing the thesis Clear thesis statement – “I want listeners to buckle up.” Public Communication

8 Researching and Supporting Public Speeches
Evidence To make ideas more clear, more compelling To fortify speakers opinions (more persuasive) To heighten speaker’s credibility Effectiveness depends on whether listeners accept. Five forms of evidence: Statistics, Examples, Comparisons, Quotations, Visual aids Public Communication

9 Researching and Supporting Public Speeches
Checking on evidence Statistics still valid? Quoted person’s personal interest (biased?) Quoted person an expert? (Halo effect --- outside one’s expertise) Example representative? Comparison fair? Visual aids clear? Public Communication

10 Organizing Speeches Effectiveness can be increased: Organization:
Structure - Ideas coming in some order Organized speech more persuasive than disorganized one Organization reflects preparation and enhances credibility. Organization: The introduction The body Conclusion Transitions Public Communication

11 Organization of Speech
The introduction To gain attention, state the thesis, preview the claims The body of the speech To organize content into related points Temporal (Time) pattern Spatial pattern Topical pattern, star structure Wave pattern Comparative pattern Problem-solution pattern Cause-effect; effect-cause pattern Motivated sequence pattern: Order of human thought (next slide) Public Communication

12 Organization of Speech
Motivated sequence pattern: 5 sequential steps Attention step Need step Satisfaction step Visualization step Action step Public Communication

13 Organization of Speech
Conclusion A good speech ends on a strong note. Summarizing main ideas Leaving a memorable final ideas Transitions Moving from one idea to another Words, phrases Public Communication

14 Developing Effective Delivery
Speaker’s credibility Oral style is more personal than written: I vs. The speaker Eye contact Immediacy; short sentences rather than long ones Rhetorical questions, interjections, redundancy Public Communication

15 Four Styles of Delivery
Impromptu delivery Little or no preparation; not for novice speaker Extemporaneous delivery Substantial preparation; relying on notes not exact words; politician, attorney Manuscript delivery Presenting written manuscript; precision Memorized delivery Presenting memorized text; risk of canned delivery lacking dynamism; forgetting Public Communication

16 Challenges in Public Speaking
Understanding and controlling anxiety Causes of communication apprehension Reducing communication apprehension Adapting to audiences Learning about listeners Tailoring speeches to listeners Listening critically to speakers Four checking questions (p. 321) Public Communication

17 Understanding Anxiety
Causes of apprehension Unfamiliar with people (audience) Uncertain situations Being in the spotlight Being evaluated Past failure Chronic; Learned apprehension Public Communication

18 Reducing Anxiety Methods of reducing apprehension
Systematic desensitization Relax and reduce psychological features (breath) Cognitive restructuring Identify and challenge negative self-statement Positive visualization Enact positive mental pictures in speaking situation Skills training Public Communication

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