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Essentials of Human Anatomy The Skeletal System 2

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1 Essentials of Human Anatomy The Skeletal System 2

2 Joints It is the site where two or more bones come together, where there is movement or not.

3 Function Holds bones together Allows bones to move
All bones articulate except the hyoid

4 Classification of Joints
Fibrous Joints Dense connective tissues connect bones between bones in close contact Cartilaginous Joints Hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage connect bones Synovial Joints Most complex allow free movement Synarthrotic immovable Amphiarthrotic slightly movable Diarthrotic freely movable

5 FIBROUS JOINTS The articulating surfaces are joined by fibrous tissue.
Very little movement is possible. E.G : Sutures of the vault of the skull. Inferior tibiofibular joints. Tooth in jawbone

6 CARTILAGENOUS JOINTS A. Primary Cartilagenous
The bones are united by a plate of hyaline cartilage. E.G : Between the Epiphysis and Diaphysis of a growing bone. Between the first rib and the sternum.

7 CARTILAGENOUS JOINTS B. Secondary Cartilagenous
The bones are united by a plate of fibrocartilage. Their articulating surfaces are covered by a thin plate of hyaline cartilage. E.G : joints between the vertebral bodies. Symphysis pubis.

8 SYNOVIAL JOINT It has a great degree of freedom of movement.
The articulating bones are covered by hyaline cartilage and separated by a joint cavity. The cavity is lined by synovial membrane. It is protected on the outside by a tough fibrous capsule. The synovial membrane produces a lubricating fluid (synovial fluid)

9 General Anatomy of Synovial Joints
Basic features: articular capsule joint cavity synovial fluid articular cartilage ligaments nerves blood vessels

10 Types of Synovial Joints
From least movable to most freely movable, the six specific types of synovial joints are: planar (gliding) joints hinge joints pivot joints condyloid (ellipsoid) joints saddle joints ball-and-socket joints

11 Types of Synovial Joints
Ball-and-Socket Joint hip shoulder Condyloid Joint between metacarpals and phalanges

12 Types of Synovial Joints
Gliding Joint between carpals between tarsals Hinge Joint elbow between phalanges

13 Types of Synovial Joints
Pivot Joint between proximal ends of radius and ulna Saddle Joint between carpal and metacarpal of thumb

14 Mobility and Stability in Joints
Motion permitted ranges from none to various extensive motions. Structure determines both its mobility and its stability. more mobile = less stable

15 Types of Joint Movements
Abduction /Adduction Dorsiflexion / Plantarflexion Flexion / Extension / Hyperextension

16 Types of Joint Movements
Rotation / Circumduction Supination / Pronation

17 Types of Joint Movements
Eversion / Inversion Protraction / Retraction Elevation / Depression

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