Introduction and Overview Sub Workshop 4 Mobile Sources Better Air Quality 2002 Hong Kong December 16-18, 2002.
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Presentation on theme: "Introduction and Overview Sub Workshop 4 Mobile Sources Better Air Quality 2002 Hong Kong December 16-18, 2002."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction and Overview Sub Workshop 4 Mobile Sources Better Air Quality 2002 Hong Kong December 16-18, 2002
Summary Setting Standards For New & In Use Vehicles Successful I/M Programs Diesel Retrofit Experiences Fuel Quality in Asia Current Trends Desulfurization Costs & Benefits Clean Fuels Partnership CNG Issues & Potential Benefits Modeling Mobile Source Emissions
Fuel Quality is Critical Elimination of Lead in Gasoline Allows Catalyst Technology Very Low Sulfur Levels Enhances All Catalyst Technology Performance Necessary To Use Advanced Technologies Other Benefits Other Fuel Properties Also Important
Other Benefits from Sulfur Control Sulfur reduction reduces SO2 emissions. Less sulfate formation in the atmosphere (about 1/3 of SO2 reacts to sulfate) Reduced acid rain. Sulfur reduction reduces engine wear. Reduction from 2500 ppm to 500 ppm reduces engine wear 10 - 20%; about 33% if starting out at 5000 ppm. Greater engine wear with infrequent oil change.
Diesel Particulate Filters Trapped PM Cell Plugs Exhaust (PM, CO, HC) Enter Ceramic Honeycomb Wall Exhaust (CO 2, H 2 O) Out Issues to balance: sulfate formation regeneration and back pressure Fuel Economy Reductions: -80 to 95% PM -80-100% HC, CO -80%+ toxins
Dealing With Dirty Diesels Clean Them Up ULSD Oxidation Catalysts Diesel PM Filters Certification Process Switch To CNG Fuel Availability & Infrastructure New Engines Vs. Conversions Certification Process
California Air Resources Board Study Of Oxidation Catalyst On CNG Bus Aldehydes Reduced by 95% NMHC Emissions Reduced by 88% 1,3 Butadiene Below Detection Limit Additional Reduction of PM, CO and Total HC Additional Reduction of Ultrafine PM Bottom Line: Clean Diesels with Very Low Sulfur Fuel or CNG with OxCat Can Substantially Reduce Emissions BUT Only If Done Well
Emission Standards & Compliance Test timing Vehicles tested Requirement Emission Test method Full Mode Short Test Before production Representa tive of Production (Certification) Main test Add On test Type approv al Durabil ity At shipment Production sampling COP After sale In field In-use TestRare Common
Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Program Purpose: To Assure that vehicle is properly maintained and used Identify Dirtiest Vehicles & Get Them Repaired General Attributes: Relatively short Relatively simple Types Idle 2-Stage Idle Steady Speed Loaded Transient Loaded