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1 SEGMENT 2 Decision Support Systems: An Overview.

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Presentation on theme: "1 SEGMENT 2 Decision Support Systems: An Overview."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 SEGMENT 2 Decision Support Systems: An Overview

2 2 Decision Support Systems n Decision Support Methodology n Technology Components n Development

3 3 Decision Support Systems: An Overview n Capabilities n Structure n Classifications

4 4 DSS Configurations n Supports individuals and teams n Used repeatedly and constantly n Two major components: data and models n Web-based n Uses subjective, personal, and objective data n Has a simulation model n Used in public and private sectors n Has what-if capabilities n Uses quantitative and qualitative models

5 5 n Keen (1980) DSS apply “to situations where a ‘final’ system can be developed only through an adaptive process of learning and evolution” n Central Issue in DSS support and improvement of decision making

6 6 Working Definition of DSS n A DSS is an interactive, flexible, and adaptable CBIS, specially developed for supporting the solution of a non-structured management problem for improved decision making. It utilizes data, it provides easy user interface, and it allows for the decision maker’s own insights n DSS may utilize models, is built by an interactive process (frequently by end-users), supports all the phases of the decision making, and may include a knowledge component

7 7 Characteristics and Capabilities of DSS 1. Provide support in semi-structured and unstructured situations, includes human judgment and computerized information 2. Support for various managerial levels 3. Support to individuals and groups 4. Support to interdependent and/or sequential decisions 5. Support all phases of the decision-making process 6. Support a variety of decision-making processes and styles (more)

8 8 7. Are adaptive 8. Have user friendly interfaces 9. Goal: improve effectiveness of decision making 10. The decision maker controls the decision-making process 11. End-users can build simple systems 12. Utilizes models for analysis 13. Provides access to a variety of data sources, formats, and types Decision makers can make better, more consistent decisions in a timely manner

9 9 DSS Components 1. Data Management Subsystem 2. Model Management Subsystem 3. Knowledge-based (Management) Subsystem 4. User Interface Subsystem 5. The User

10 10 DSS Components User User Interface DBMS MBMS KBS3KBS2 KBS1

11 11 The Data Management Subsystem n DSS database n Database management system n Data directory n Query facility

12 12 DSS Database Issues n Data warehouse n Data mining n Special independent DSS databases n Extraction of data from internal, external, and private sources n Web browser data access n Web database servers n Multimedia databases n Special GSS databases (like Lotus Notes / Domino Server) n Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) n Object-oriented databases n Commercial database management systems (DBMS)

13 13 The Model Management Subsystem n Analog of the database management subsystem n Model base n Model base management system n Modeling language n Model directory n Model execution, integration, and command processor

14 14 Model Management Issues n Model level: Strategic, managerial (tactical), and operational n Modeling languages n Lack of standard MBMS activities. WHY? n Use of AI and fuzzy logic in MBMS

15 15 The Knowledge Based (Management) Subsystem n Provides expertise in solving complex unstructured and semi-structured problems n Expertise provided by an expert system or other intelligent system n Advanced DSS have a knowledge based (management) component n Leads to intelligent DSS n Example: Data mining

16 16 The User Interface (Dialog) Subsystem n Includes all communication between a user and the MSS n Graphical user interfaces (GUI) n Voice recognition and speech synthesis possible n To most users, the user interface is the system

17 17 The User Different usage patterns for the user, the manager, or the decision maker n Managers n Staff specialists n Intermediaries 1. Staff assistant 2. Expert tool user 3. Business (system) analyst 4. GSS Facilitator

18 18 DSS Hardware Evolved with computer hardware and software technologies Major Hardware Options n Mainframe n Workstation n Personal computer n Web server system –Internet –Intranets –Extranets

19 19 Distinguishing DSS from Management Science and MIS n DSS is a problem-solving tool and is frequently used to address ad hoc and unexpected problems n Different than MIS n DSS evolve as they develop

20 20 DSS Classifications Alter’s Output Classification (1980) n Degree of action implication of system outputs (supporting decision) n Holsapple and Whinston’s Classification 1. Text-oriented DSS 2. Database-oriented DSS 3. Spreadsheet-oriented DSS 4. Solver-oriented DSS 5. Rule-oriented DSS 6. Compound DSS

21 21 Intelligent DSS Categories n Descriptive n Procedural n Reasoning n Linguistic n Presentation n Assimilative

22 22 Alternate Categories of Intelligent DSS n Symbiotic n Expert-system based n Adaptive n Holistic

23 23 Other Classifications Institutional DSS vs. Ad Hoc DSS n Institutional DSS deals with decisions of a recurring nature n Ad Hoc DSS deals with specific problems that are usually neither anticipated nor recurring (usually, one-time only)

24 24 Ingredients for DSS Success or Failure n For DSS Success –Management Support –Users Involved in Design & Development –Early Benefits Shown n For DSS Failure –Lack of Management Support –Users Ignored in Design & Development –No Early Benefits Shown

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