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Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2-1 Chapter 2 Planning and Providing Special Education Services
The Process of Special Education Prereferral Intervention Provide immediate instructional and/or behavioral assistance Evaluation and Identification All children suspected of having a disability must receive a nondiscriminatory multifactored evaluation Program Planning An individualized education program must be developed for children identified as having a disability Placement The IEP team must determine the least restrictive educational environment that meet the student’s needs Review and Evaluation The IEP must be thoroughly and formally reviewed on an annual basis Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2-1
Individualized Education Program (IEP) IDEA requires that an IEP be developed and implemented for every student with disabilities between the ages of 3 and 21 Individualized family service plans are developed for infants and toddlers from birth to age 3. The IEP team must include the following members: Parents Regular education teachers Special education teachers LEA representative An individual who can interpret evaluation results Others at the discretion of the parent or school The student (age 14 or older must be invited) Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2-3
IEP Components The IEP must include: A statement of present levels of educational performance A statement of annual goals A statement of special education and related services An explanation of the extent to which the student will not participate with nondisabled children Individual modifications The projected date for the beginning and duration of services A statement of how the child will be assessed Beginning at age 14, a statement of transition service needs must be included Beginning at age 16, an individual transition plan must be developed Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2-4
IEP Functions and Formats IEP formats vary widely across school districts Properly including all of the mandated components in an IEP is no guarantee that the document will guide the student’s learning and the teachers’ teaching The purpose is to create a document that goes beyond compliance with the law and actually functions as a meaningful guide Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2-5
Least Restrictive Environment LRE is the setting that is closest to a regular school program that meets the child’s special educational needs The IEP team must determine if the annual goals and short-term objectives can be achieved in the regular classroom Removal from the regular classroom should take place when the severity of the disability is such that an appropriate education cannot be achieved Placement must not be regarded as permanent Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2-6
A Continuum of Services Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2-7
Inclusive Education Inclusion means educating students with disabilities in regular classrooms Studies have shown that well-planned, carefully conducted inclusion can be generally effective with students of all ages, types, and degrees of disability A few special educators believe that the LRE principle should give way to full inclusion, in which all students with disabilities are placed full time in regular classrooms Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2-8
Arguments For and Against Full Inclusion Pro LRE legitimates restrictive environments Confuses segregation and integration with intensity of services Is based on a “readiness model” Supports the primacy of professional decision making Sanctions infringements on people’s rights Implies that people must move as they develop and change Directs attention to physical settings rather than to the services and supports people need Con Placing a child in a general education setting is no guarantee he will learn or be accepted General education teachers are often not sufficiently trained System of supports often not available No clear definition of what inclusion means 2-9 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Where Does Special Education Go from Here? The promise of a free, appropriate public education for all children with disabilities is an ambitious one, but substantial progress has been made toward fulfillment of that promise Implementation of IDEA has brought problems of funding, inadequate teacher training, and opposition by some to inclusion of children with disabilities in regular classrooms Regardless of where services are delivered, the most crucial variable is the quality of instruction that each child receives 2-102-1 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
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