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Chapter 6 IP Security. Outline Internetworking and Internet Protocols (Appendix 6A) IP Security Overview IP Security Architecture Authentication Header.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 IP Security. Outline Internetworking and Internet Protocols (Appendix 6A) IP Security Overview IP Security Architecture Authentication Header."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6 IP Security

2 Outline Internetworking and Internet Protocols (Appendix 6A) IP Security Overview IP Security Architecture Authentication Header Encapsulating Security Payload Combinations of Security Associations Key Management

3 TCP/IP Example

4 IPv4 Header

5 IPv6 Header

6 IP Security Overview We have considered some application specific security mechanisms eg. S/MIME, PGP, Kerberos, SSL/HTTPS However there are security concerns that cut across protocol layers Would like security implemented by the network for all applications

7 IP Security Overview IPSec is not a single protocol. Instead, IPSec provides a set of security algorithms plus a general framework that allows a pair of communicating entities to use whichever algorithms provide security appropriate for the communication.

8 IP Security Overview In general IP Security mechanisms provides authentication confidentiality key management It is applicable to use over LANs, across public & private WANs, & for the Internet

9 IP Security Overview Applications of IPSec Secure branch office connectivity over the Internet Secure remote access over the Internet Establsihing extranet and intranet connectivity with partners Enhancing electronic commerce security

10 IP Security Scenario

11 IP Security Overview Benefits of IPSec Transparent to applications (below transport layer (TCP, UDP) Provide security for individual users IPSec can assure that: A router or neighbor advertisement comes from an authorized router A redirect message comes from the router to which the initial packet was sent A routing update is not forged

12 IP Security Architecture IPSec documents: RFC 2401: An overview of security architecture RFC 2402: Description of a packet encryption extension to IPv4 and IPv6 RFC 2406: Description of a packet emcryption extension to IPv4 and IPv6 RFC 2408: Specification of key managament capabilities

13 IPSec Document Overview

14 IPSec Services Access Control Connectionless integrity Data origin authentication Rejection of replayed packets Confidentiality (encryption) Limited traffic flow confidentiallity

15 Security Associations(SA) A one-way relationship between sender & receiver that affords security for traffic flow Defined by 3 parameters: Security Parameters Index (SPI) IP Destination Address Security Protocol Identifier Has a number of other parameters seq no, AH & EH info, lifetime etc Have a database of Security Associations

16 Transport Mode SA Tunnel Mode SA AH Authenticates IP payload and selected portions of IP header and IPv6 extension headers Authenticates entire inner IP packet plus selected portions of outer IP header ESP Encrypts IP payload and any IPv6 extesion header Encrypts inner IP packet ESP with authentication Encrypts IP payload and any IPv6 extesion header. Authenticates IP payload but no IP header Encrypts inner IP packet. Authenticates inner IP packet.

17 Authentication Header (AH) provides support for data integrity & authentication of IP packets end system/router can authenticate user/app prevents address spoofing attacks by tracking sequence numbers based on use of a MAC HMAC-MD5-96 or HMAC-SHA-1-96 parties must share a secret key

18 Authentication Header

19 End-to-end versus End-to- Intermediate Authentication

20 Before applying AH

21 Transport Mode (AH Authentication)

22 Tunnel Mode (AH Authentication)

23 Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) provides message content confidentiality & limited traffic flow confidentiality can optionally provide the same authentication services as AH supports range of ciphers, modes, padding incl. DES, Triple-DES, RC5, IDEA, CAST etc CBC most common pad to meet blocksize, for traffic flow

24 Encapsulating Security Payload

25 Encryption and Authentication Algorithms Encryption: Three-key triple DES RC5 IDEA Three-key triple IDEA CAST Blowfish Authentication: HMAC-MD5-96 HMAC-SHA-1-96

26 ESP Encryption and Authentication


28 Transport vs Tunnel Mode ESP transport mode is used to encrypt & optionally authenticate IP data data protected but header left in clear can do traffic analysis but is efficient good for ESP host to host traffic tunnel mode encrypts entire IP packet add new header for next hop good for VPNs, gateway to gateway security

29 Combinations of Security Associations




33 Key Management Two types: Manual Automated Oakley Key Determination Protocol Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP)

34 Oakley Three authentication methods: Digital signatures Public-key encryption Symmetric-key encryption


36 Recommended Reading Comer, D. Internetworking with TCP/IP, Volume I: Principles, Protocols and Architecture. Prentic Hall, 1995 Stevens, W. TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1: The Protocols. Addison-Wesley, 1994

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