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Forestry Measurements Ms. Dombroski September 2005

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Pre-reading Website reading Website reading http://forestry.msu.edu/uptreeid/History/ Modern.htm http://forestry.msu.edu/uptreeid/History/ Modern.htm http://forestry.msu.edu/uptreeid/History/ Modern.htm http://forestry.msu.edu/uptreeid/History/ Modern.htm After your finished take a look at “Facts About Today's Michigan Forests” After your finished take a look at “Facts About Today's Michigan Forests”Today's

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Let’s Review What are our most popular trees? What are our most popular trees? Who owns the most forested land in Michigan? Who owns the most forested land in Michigan? Where is the majority of our forest? Where is the majority of our forest? Why are forests important? Why are forests important?

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Pacing How far is one step? that is your pace How far is one step? that is your pace Everyone's will be different, you must remember yours Everyone's will be different, you must remember yours We’ll measure out 1 chain (66ft) We’ll measure out 1 chain (66ft) You will practice walking this distance to get an average pace measure You will practice walking this distance to get an average pace measure

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Percent Crown Coverage From a point looking up, what % of the sky is covered (no light gets through) From a point looking up, what % of the sky is covered (no light gets through) Our measurement tool is called an ocular tube Our measurement tool is called an ocular tube We will be We will be making our own and using them outside

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Ocular Tube Hold it above your face just an inch or so, you see several squares, their either covered or not Hold it above your face just an inch or so, you see several squares, their either covered or not Count the ones covered Count the ones covered Multiply this number by 4 to get 100% canopy cover Multiply this number by 4 to get 100% canopy cover From spot one move 5 paces rerecord, repeat until you have 8 readings From spot one move 5 paces rerecord, repeat until you have 8 readings This represents 25%

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Creating a Ocular Tube You will Need: You will Need: 2.5” wide Square PVC Pipe – 6” in Length 2.5” wide Square PVC Pipe – 6” in Length Fine-Gauge Wire (Floral Wire) Fine-Gauge Wire (Floral Wire) Saw Saw Drill w/ very small bit Drill w/ very small bit Drill 4 evenly spaced holes on each side of PVC, ½ “ apart Thread wire through holes in a grid pattern. Thread wire through holes in a grid pattern.

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What is a Board Foot? 12”long X 12”wide by 1” thick 12”long X 12”wide by 1” thick This is the measurement marketable timber is sold by (144 cubic inches per bd ft) This is the measurement marketable timber is sold by (144 cubic inches per bd ft) So if we have a 2X4 that’s 8ft long, how many Bd ft is that? So if we have a 2X4 that’s 8ft long, how many Bd ft is that? 2inch x 4inch (8ft x 12in/ft) = 768 cubic/in 2inch x 4inch (8ft x 12in/ft) = 768 cubic/in 768/144 = 5.33 bd ft 768/144 = 5.33 bd ft 12” 1”

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Practicing Bd ft We cut a 1 ½ x 8 on our sawmill in the bullpen, its 10ft long. What’s the bd ft? We cut a 1 ½ x 8 on our sawmill in the bullpen, its 10ft long. What’s the bd ft? 1.5x8 (10ft x 12in/ft) = 1440 cubic ft 1.5x8 (10ft x 12in/ft) = 1440 cubic ft 1440/144 = 10 Bd Ft 1440/144 = 10 Bd Ft

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Diameter at Breast Height This is 4 ½ feet from the level ground This is 4 ½ feet from the level ground This helps us decide marketable timber This helps us decide marketable timber The sectional area is also called Basal area The sectional area is also called Basal area We will use both; We will use both; diameter tape and diameter tape and the Biltmore stick the Biltmore stick

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Height in logs or bolts Logs - 16ft marketable section of a hardwood tree Logs - 16ft marketable section of a hardwood tree Bolts –8ft marketable section of a coniferous tree Bolts –8ft marketable section of a coniferous tree This is measured until a break in the bowl (trunk) on hardwoods or 8” diameter This is measured until a break in the bowl (trunk) on hardwoods or 8” diameter And measured up to a 4” diameter on pines And measured up to a 4” diameter on pines

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Measuring Marketable Timber We use # of logs and DBH to figure Marketable timber or volume We use # of logs and DBH to figure Marketable timber or volume By looking at the “How much Lumber is in that Tree” handout we see there is more than one way to figure this amount By looking at the “How much Lumber is in that Tree” handout we see there is more than one way to figure this amount

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Aging Trees Taking a core sample Taking a core sample Counting sections of limbs on conifers Counting sections of limbs on conifers Tree cookies Tree cookies

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Density of Trees per Acre Usually estimates by 1/10 acre plots Usually estimates by 1/10 acre plots Done in several random areas of a stand Done in several random areas of a stand These areas are then averaged These areas are then averaged 1/10 plot = a circle with a 37.2ft radius 1/10 plot = a circle with a 37.2ft radius 37.2 At higher densities, the growth rates of individual trees slow down because there are more trees competing for the site's limited resources.

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