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KINS 151 Website

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Presentation on theme: "KINS 151 Website"— Presentation transcript:

1 KINS 151 Website

2 Introduction How do objects move? How do humans move?

3 Definitions Force (Force = mass x acceleration) Types of Force
External forces: weight force or gravitational force (w = mg) and others Internal forces: muscle force/contraction (concentric, eccentric, isometric or static)

4 Anatomical Reference Position

5 Planes of Motion / Axis of Rotation
frontal plane and anteroposterior (sagittal) axis sagittal plane and mediolateral (frontal, lateral, coronal ) axis transverse plane and longitudinal (vertical) axis

6 Primary movements in the sagittal plane are flexion and extension.
Basic Movements Primary movements in the sagittal plane are flexion and extension. Flexion: bending movement relative angle between adjacent segments decreases Extension: straightening movement relative angle between adjacent segments increases and the joint returns to the anatomical position joint could be “flexed” while it is extending

7 At the ankle, there are special names for flexion and extension
Dorsiflexion: movement of the foot upward (toward the leg), decreasing the ankle angle Plantar flexion: movement of the foot downward (away from the leg), increasing the ankle angle

8 Hyperflexion (joint position) occurs when the flexion movement goes beyond 180° of flexion or more than half a circle Occurs at the shoulder joint as the arm rotates above the side of the head Hyperextension (joint position): extension movement that goes beyond the anatomical position can take place in the trunk, shoulders, hips, and wrist joints

9 Sagittal Plane / Mediolateral Axis

10 Major frontal plane movements are abduction and adduction
Abduction: movement away from the midline of the body or segment Adduction: movement back towards the midline of the body or segment

11 Other frontal plane movements include lateral flexion, elevation and depression, upward and downward rotation: Sideways movements of the head and trunk, designated as right and left (from the perspective of the subject) lateral flexion Scapular elevation and depression: scapulae raised and lowered in a shrugging motion Scapular upward and downward rotation, inferior angle moves away from midline (upward) inferior angle moves towards the midline

12 Rotations of the hands and feet in the frontal plane include:
Radial deviation: movement of the hand toward the thumb Ulnar deviation: movement of the hand toward the little finger Inversion: medial border of the foot lifts Eversion: lateral aspect of the foot lifts

13 These terms should not be confused with pronation and supination, which are combinations of movements at the ankle (subtalar) joint Pronation is a combination of eversion, abduction, and dorsiflexion Supination is a combination of inversion, adduction, and plantar flexion

14 Frontal Plane / Anteroposterior Axis

15 Body movements in the transverse plane are rotational movements about a longitudinal axis
Left and right rotation could occur in the trunk or head segment Other segment rotations can be internal or external rotations

16 Specific terms are used for rotations of the forearm
Supination: palms rotate outward to face forward as in the anatomical starting position Pronation: palms are moved to face backwards

17 When the shoulder or hip is flexed to a 90° position, movement in the transverse plane from an anterior to a lateral position is horizontal abduction Horizontal adduction: movement in the transverse plane from a lateral to an anterior position

18 Transverse Plane / Longitudinal Axis

19 Movement Analysis Most (if not all) activities can be analyzed by breaking them down into three general phases: 1) preparation ↔ deceleration ↔ eccentric 2) acceleration ↔ acceleration ↔ concentric 3) follow-through ↔ deceleration ↔ eccentric The more complex an activity is the more phases it tends to have. ex. baseball pitch, walking

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