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Basic Motivation ConceptsEssentials of Organizational Behavior, 8/e Stephen P. Robbins Chapter 4 Basic Motivation Concepts © 2005 Prentice-Hall
What is Motivation? The willingness to do something, conditioned by this action’s ability to satisfy some need for the individual © 2005 Prentice-Hall
Need - a physiological or psychological deficiency that makes certain outcomes appear attractive© 2005 Prentice-Hall
Motivation Process Unsatisfied Need Tension Drives Search BehaviorReduction of Tension © 2005 Prentice-Hall
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs TheorySelf- Actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological © 2005 Prentice-Hall
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory YTheory X Workers Dislike work Must be threatened with punishment Avoid responsibilities Seek formal direction Require security Little ambition Theory Y Workers View work as natural Self-directed Exercise self-control Accept responsibility Seek responsibility Make innovative decisions © 2005 Prentice-Hall
Herzberg’s Two-Factor TheoryHigh Job Dissatisfaction Job Satisfaction Hygiene factors affect job dissatisfaction Motivator factors affect job satisfaction Quality of supervision Pay Company policies Physical working conditions Relations with others Job security Promotional opportunities Opportunities for personal growth Recognition Responsibility Achievement © 2005 Prentice-Hall
Herzberg’s Two-Factor TheoryManagers who seek to eliminate factors that can create job dissatisfaction may bring about peace but not necessarily motivation. To motivate people on their jobs, managers should emphasize factors associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it. © 2005 Prentice-Hall
McClelland's Theory of NeedsNeed for achievement (nAch) - drive to excel Need for power (nPow) - the need to make others behave in a way they would not have behaved otherwise Need for affiliation (nAff) - the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships © 2005 Prentice-Hall
McClelland's Theory of NeedsHigh achievers prefer jobs with personal responsibility, feedback, and intermediate degree of risk. High achievers are not necessarily good managers. Affiliation and power closely related to managerial success © 2005 Prentice-Hall
Goal-Setting Theory Specific goals lead to increased performance.Difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher output than easy goals. © 2005 Prentice-Hall
Goal-Setting Theory Holding ability and acceptance constant; the more difficult the goals, the higher the level of performance Goals can be a major source of work motivation. © 2005 Prentice-Hall
Reinforcement Theory Behavior is environmentally caused.Reinforcers control behaviors. Consequences immediately following response increase the probability of repeated behavior. © 2005 Prentice-Hall
Reinforcement Theory Concentrates solely on what happens when person takes some action People will exert more effort on tasks that are reinforced. © 2005 Prentice-Hall
Job Design Theory The way the elements in a job are organized can act to increase or decrease effort © 2005 Prentice-Hall
Job Characteristics Model (JCM)Skill variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Feedback © 2005 Prentice-Hall
Social Information Processing ModelEmployees adopt attitudes and behaviors in response to the social cues provided by others with whom they have contact. © 2005 Prentice-Hall
Equity Theory Employees weigh what they put into a job situation (input) against what they get from it (outcome). Then they compare their input-outcome ratio with the input-outcome ratio of relevant others. © 2005 Prentice-Hall
Equity Theory If they perceive their ratio to be equal to that of relevant others, a state of equity exists. © 2005 Prentice-Hall
Equity Theory If the ratios are unequal, inequity exists, either under-reward or over-reward. When inequities occur, employees will attempt to correct them. © 2005 Prentice-Hall
Equity Theory When employees envision an inequity, they may make one or more of five choices: Distort either their own or others’ inputs or outcomes Behave in some way so as to induce others to change their inputs or outcomes Behave in some way so as to change their own inputs or outcomes Choose a different comparison referent Quit their job © 2005 Prentice-Hall
Expectancy Theory Strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on Strength of expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome Attractiveness of that outcome to the individual © 2005 Prentice-Hall
Expectancy Theory Attractiveness Performance-reward linkageEffort-performance linkage © 2005 Prentice-Hall
Simplified Expectancy ModelIndividual Effort Individual Performance Organizational Rewards Individual Goals © 2005 Prentice-Hall
Implications for Managers(1) Recognize individual differences (2) Match people to jobs (3) Use goals (4) Ensure that goals are perceived as attainable (5) Create jobs that offer skill variety, task identity and significance, autonomy, and feedback (6) Individualize rewards (7) Link rewards to performance (8) Check the system for equity © 2005 Prentice-Hall
Motivation Motivation : involves a conscious decision to perform one or more activities with greater effort than one performs other activities competing.
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