Rev. 09/09/02SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley1 Chapter 3 – Philosophies & Frameworks Quality pioneers, awards, and standards.
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Rev. 09/09/02SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley1 Chapter 3 – Philosophies & Frameworks Quality pioneers, awards, and standards
Rev. 09/09/02SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley2 Why Study History? ????
Rev. 09/09/02SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley3 Why Study History? Famous quote ______________________________ ______________________________ ___________________ - George Santayana American philosopher 1863 - 1952
Rev. 09/09/02SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley4 Why Study History? We are part of a time continuum _____________________________ It’s important to recognize past inventions, innovations, discoveries, and accomplishments (and the persons responsible)
Rev. 01/26/06SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley5 Early “Quality” Pioneers - 1 Frederick Taylor “Father of scientific management” Inspection Gauging Henry Ford Standardization (reduced variation) Mass use of interchangeable parts
Rev. 09/09/02SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley6 Early “Quality” Pioneers - 2 Walter A. Shewhart (Bell Labs) (1891-1967) “Father of SQC” [my term] Developed Statistical control charts PDCA cycle (shared with Deming) Identified 2 causes of variation: chance and assignable
Rev. 01/29/06SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley7 Early “Quality” Pioneers - 3 George Edwards (Director of QA, Bell Labs) (???? – 1974) Coined term “Quality Control” 1 st president of ASQC
Rev. 01/29/06SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley8 Early “Quality” Pioneers - 4 H.G. (Harry) Romig and Harold F. Dodge (Bell Labs) Acceptance sampling tables H.G. (Harry) Romig (????-????) Taught math and physics at SJSC (now SJSU) Harold F. Dodge (1893-1976)
Rev. 01/29/06SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley9 W. Edwards Deming - 1 (1900 – 1993) Most famous of Quality pioneers Mathematician and statistician by training (PhD) Worked at USDA and Bureau of the Census Studied with Shewhart for several years Invited Shewhart to lecture at USDA Helped U.S. occupation forces in Japan (1946) Taught SQC to Japanese QC people (1950)
Rev. 01/29/06SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley10 W. Edwards Deming - 2 Shares credit for PDCA [PDSA] cycle (shared with Shewhart) Honored by Deming Prize in his name by the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) Founded W.Edwards Deming Institute Emphasized systems thinking
Rev. 01/29/06SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley11 W. Edwards Deming - 3 14 points based on: Constancy of purpose Continual improvement Profound knowledge Appreciation for a system A theory of variation A theory of knowledge Psychology
09/09/02SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley12 Deming’s 14 Points 1. Create a vision and show commitment 2. Learn the new philosophy 3. Understand inspection 4. Stop decision making solely on cost 5. Improve constantly 6. Institute training 7. Institute leadership 8. Drive out fear 9. Optimize team efforts 10. Eliminate exhortations to workers 11. Eliminate numerical quotas 12. Remove barriers to workmanship pride 13. Encourage self- improvement 14. Take action
01/29/06SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley13 Deming’s Seven Deadly Diseases 1. Lack of constancy of purpose. 2. Emphasis on short-term profits. 3. Performance evaluation. 4. Mobility of management. 5. Running a company on visible numbers only. 6. Excessive medical costs. 7. Excessive costs of warranty, fueled by lawyers that work on contingency fee.
01/29/06SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley14 Deming’s Other Obstacles 1. Neglect of long-range planning. 2. Relying on technology to solve problems. 3. Seeking examples to follow rather than developing solutions. 4. Excuses such as "Our problems are different". 5. Others.
Rev. 01/29/06SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley15 Joseph M. Juran – 1 (1904 - ) Engineer by training Worked at Bell Labs with Walter Shewhart and other “pioneers” Lectured in Japan after WW II Authored/Edited Quality Control Handbook Conceived idea of “Cost of Quality”
Rev. 01/29/06SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley16 Joseph M. Juran – 2 “Quality Trilogy” concept (see next slide) Quality planning Quality improvement Quality control Founded the Juran Institute Emphasized working within the system, not proposing a major cultural change
01/29/06SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley17 Juran’s Quality Trilogy - 1 Quality planning Identify who are the customers. Determine the needs of those customers. Translate those needs into our language. Develop a product that can respond to those needs. Optimize the product features so as to meet our needs and customer needs.
01/29/06SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley18 Juran’s Quality Trilogy - 2 Quality Improvement Develop a process which is able to produce the product. Optimize the process. Quality Control Prove that the process can produce the product under operating conditions with minimal inspection. Transfer the process to Operations
Rev. 01/29/06SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley19 Armand Feigenbaum – 1 (???? - ) Was Director of Worldwide Manufacturing Operations and Quality at General Electric Now President and CEO of General Systems Company “Cost of nonconformance” Coined Total Quality Control term 1 st to describe 4 categories of cost of quality Authored Total Quality Control
Rev. 09/09/02SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley20 Armand Feigenbaum - 2 40 steps in quality principles TQC is system for integration… Standards, appraisal, corrective action Technological and human factors 4 categories of quality costs Control quality at the source
Rev. 01/29/06SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley21 Philip Crosby (1926 – 2001) Worked his way up from line inspector Managed quality at Martin Marietta, ITT Founded PCA, PCA II) Originated Zero Defects concept Authored Quality is Free, Quality Without Tears, and other books (13 in all) Started Quality College (multiple sites) Company teams trained Emphasized behavioral change
Rev. 09/09/02SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley22 Kaoru Ishikawa (1915 – 1989) Leader of the Japanese Quality Movement Started Quality Circles Developed Cause and effect [“fishbone” or Ishikawa] diagram Promoted statistical methods Recognized internal customer Conceived “company wide quality control”
Rev. 01/29/06SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley23 Other Japanese Pioneers Genichi Taguchi (1924- ) Emphasized variation reduction Taguchi loss function Exec. Director, American Supplier Inst. Shigeo Shingo (1909-1990) Not focused on quality but had significant impact Poka-Yoke Setup standardization, SMED Source inspection systems
Rev. 01/26/06SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley24 Awards & Prizes - 1 Deming (Application) Prize Awarded by Japan (Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers) First awarded in 1951 Named after W. Edwards Deming (Quality pioneer) Most winners before 2001 were Japanese American winners: Florida Power & Light, AT&T Power Systems Most winners since 2001 Indian, Thai
Rev. 01/26/06SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley25 Awards & Prizes - 2 Baldrige Award Awarded by US Department of Commerce (National Institute of Standards and Technology) 1987 legislation Named after Malcolm Baldrige (American industrialist and former Secretary of Commerce)
Rev. 01/26/06SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley26 Awards & Prizes - 3 Baldrige Award (cont’d) Original categories: Manufacturing, Service, Small Business Education added in 2001 Health care added in 2002 Local winners Granite Rock (1992) Solectron Corp. (1991, 1997)
09/09/02SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley27 Awards & Prizes - 4 President’s Quality Award [PQA] (US) European Foundation for Quality Management (Europe) National Quality Institute (Canada) Business Excellence Award (Australia) Etc., etc., etc.
Rev. 01/26/06SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley28 “Value” of Awards & Prizes Shows effort May largely be dependent on money spent Used in advertising (e.g., Cadillac – 1990) Doesn’t reflect customer view
Rev. 09/09/02SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley29 “Old” ISO 9000 Standards ISO 9000 (series) ISO 9001(design, develop, produce, install, service) ISO 9002 (no design and development) ISO 9003 (final inspection and testing) ISO 9004 (QMS application guidelines)
09/09/02SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley30 ISO 9000:2000 Standards - 1 ISO 9000 (QMS - Fundamentals and vocabulary) ISO 9001 (QMS - Requirements) ISO 9004 (QMS Guidance for performance improvement) ISO 19011 (Guidelines on Quality and/or Environmental Management Systems Auditing)
09/09/02SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley31 ISO 9000:2000 Standards - 2 ISO 10005:1995 (Quality management – Guidelines for quality plans) ISO 10006:1997 (Quality management – Guidelines to quality in project management) ISO 10007:1995 (Quality management – Guidelines for configuration management) ISO/DIS 10012 and 10012:1997 (Quality assurance requirements for measuring equipment) ISO 10014:1998 (Guidelines for managing the economics of quality) ISO 10015:1999 (Guidelines for training)
09/09/02SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley32 Automotive Industry QS-9000 Common supplier quality standard Used by Ford, GM, Daimler-Chrysler Based on ISO 9001:1994 ISO/TS 16949:1999 Quality systems – Automotive suppliers – Particular requirements for the application of ISO 9001:1994
Rev. 09/09/02SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley33 ISO Registration (Certification) What’s been good Focus on quality Demonstrates effort What’s been bad (mostly fixed in ISO 9000:2000 Becomes mechanical Emphasizes conformance to documentation, not meeting QUALITY Doesn’t include customer view
01/26/06SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley34 Six Sigma Quality - 1 Latest popular approach to Quality Overall objective is to find and eliminate causes of defects in manufacturing ad service processes ± 6 standard deviations (6 ) from the process mean = 0.0003% defects Represents a goal
01/26/06SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley35 Six Sigma Quality - 2 Concept developed at Motorola by Bill Smith Best in class = General Electric Certification from ASQ on processes to support Six Sigma Many consulting and training firms on how to implement Six Sigma
03/01/04SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley36 Six Sigma at GE “The central idea behind Six Sigma is that if you can measure how many ‘defects’ you have in a process, you can systematically figure out how to eliminate them and get as close to ‘zero defects’ as possible.” Making Customers Feel Six Sigma Quality
09/09/02SJSU Bus 142 - David Bentley37 Quality Today Reflects a blend of concepts and contributions from the “pioneers” (“gurus”) Stresses organization-wide TQM Emphasizes the role of the front-line worker (authority and responsibility) Seeks to recognize achievement through prizes and certification