6 Define ActivitiesRolling Wave Planning – Progressive planning where near term work is broken down in detail and distant work is kept at a higher WBS levelPlanning Component – WBS items that cannot be broken down into work packages are put in a:Control Account – High level planning dates for the scope to be definedPlanning Package – Package includes scope to be completed but no activities.
8 Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) Commonly called Activity on Node (AON), most commonly used sequencing methodBoxes are used to represent tasks with arrows used for dependenciesFour types of dependenciesFinish to Start – Task must finish before next one can startFinish to Finish – One task must finish before the other can finishStart to Start – One task must start before the other can startStart to Finish – One task must start before the other can finishActivityAActivityBNodeDependency
9 Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) Commonly called Activity on Arrow (AOA)Boxes are used to represent dependencies with arrows used for tasksOnly Finish to Start relationshipsCan use “dummy” activitiesUsed for CPM and PERT estimating methodsTaskActivityADependency
13 Estimating Methods CPM (Critical Path Method) One time estimate per taskControls cost with flexible scheduleOnly on AOA networks (can have dummies)Not the same thing as schedule critical pathPERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique)Three estimates per activity (Optimistic, Pessimistic, most likely)Emphasis on meeting schedule with flexible costMonte Carlo SimulationGives probabilities of completing project on time, cost, and whether or not project is on critical path
16 Scheduling from Estimates Critical PathLongest time through the network diagram, the shortest time the project is expected to takeSlack (or Float)The amount of time a task can be delayed without impacting the projectCalculated using:Late Start – Early Start (LS-ES)OrLate Finish – Early Finish (LF-EF)Early Starts computed by making a “forward pass” through the network while late starts are computed using a “backward pass”
18 Control Schedule Tools & Techniques Inputs Outputs Schedule model data updatesTools & TechniquesSchedule baseline updatesSchedule network analysisCritical path methodSchedule compressionWhat-if analysisResource levelingCritical chain methodProject management softwareApplying calendarsAdjustable leads and lagsSchedule modelInputsSchedule Management PlanPerformance measurementsOutputsRequested changesSchedule BaselineRecommended corrective actionsPerformance reportsOrganizational process assets updatesApproved Change RequestsActivity list updatesActivity attribute updatesProject Management Plan updatesDefineActivitiesSequenceEstimate Activity ResourcesEstimate Activity DurationsDevelopScheduleControl Schedule
19 Other Important Terms Lag – Inserted waiting time between tasks Free Slack – Available delay time without impacting start of successorTotal Slack – Amount of time a task can be delayed without delaying project completion dateProject Slack – Amount of time a project can be delayed without impacting completion dates imposed by clientCrashing – Adding resources to critical path items to shorten scheduleFast Tracking – Performing critical path tasks in parallel rather than seriesResource Leveling – Adjusting completion dates of tasks to meet available resourcesHeuristics – Rules of thumb