Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Hybrid Active Pixel Sensors and SOI-Inspired Option M. Baranski, W. Kucewicz, S. Kuta, W. Machowski, H. Niemiec, M. Sapor University of Mining and Metallurgy,

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Hybrid Active Pixel Sensors and SOI-Inspired Option M. Baranski, W. Kucewicz, S. Kuta, W. Machowski, H. Niemiec, M. Sapor University of Mining and Metallurgy,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Hybrid Active Pixel Sensors and SOI-Inspired Option M. Baranski, W. Kucewicz, S. Kuta, W. Machowski, H. Niemiec, M. Sapor University of Mining and Metallurgy, Krakow K. Domanski, P. Grabiec, M. Grodner, K. Kucharski, B. Jaroszewicz, J. Marczewski, D. Tomaszewski Institute of Electron Technology, Warszawa M. Amati, A. Bulgheroni, M. Caccia University of Insubria, Como Presented by Halina Niemiec

2  Hybrid Active Pixel Sensors with interleaved pixels  Charge collection and resolution  New prototype  SOI monolithic detectors  Technology challenges  Test structures and readout prototype Solutions for future linear collider Vertex Tracker

3 Hybrid Active Pixel Sensors with Interleaved Pixels - Motivation Vertex Tracker for future linear collider should provide: Single point resolution better then 10  m Limitations of pixel detectors:  Dimensions of readout electronics cell  Number of readout channels – power dissipation, readout speed Possible solution Hybrid Detectors with Interleaved Pixels

4 Hybrid Pixel Detector with Interleaved Pixels Charge carriers generated underneath one of the interleaved pixel cells induce a signal on the capacitively coupled read-out pixels, leading to a spatial accuracy improvement by a proper signal interpolation. readout pitch = n x pixel pitch Large enough to house the VLSI front-end cell Small enough for an effective sampling

5 HAPS - First Prototype  Fabricated by Institute of Electron Technology in Warsaw, Poland  AC coupled, biasing via polysilicon resistors  36 test structures with 17 different configurations:  implant width: 34 – 100  m  pixel pitch: 50 – 150  m  # of interleaved pixels: 0-3  readout pitches in both dimensions: 200 and 300  m

6 Detector Modeling as Capacitive Network The expected charge loss depends on the ratio between the interpixel and backplane capacitance C b - backplane capacitance C i - interpixel capacitance C C - coupling capacitance

7 Pixel Capacitance Measurements Measurements with HP 4280 meter @ 1 MHz  3 bias lines were scratched  Capacitance was measured for  each of lines  3 doublets in parallel  1 triplet  Offset in the linear regression for the capacitance versus the number of lines - left-over parasitic contributions after the cable correction  2 independent measurements

8 Pixel Capacitance Measurements  Measurements results were compared with calculated values (OPERA 3D package)  Max charge loss was estimated using time domain and simply steady-state method

9 Design Optimization Time Domain Simulations  G gnd from 5 to 20 MOhms  Increase of CCE by 26%  Increase of C ip by 50 %  Increase of CCE by 23% Interleaved pixel potential [mV] Readout pixel potential [mV]

10 Charge Sharing Studies  Structure under test:  60  m implant width  100  m pixel pitch  200  m readout pitch  Tests with infrared diode:  Wavelength: 880 nm (penetration depth in silicon substrate: 10  m)  Spot size: below 85  m, position controlled by 2D stage with micrometric accuracy

11 The read-out pixels were wire bonded to the readout electronics chip. The BELLE experiment amplifiers and readout chain were used Test Module

12 Charge Sharing Studies Description of charge collection properties:  Charge sharing:  = PH R /  PH cluster PH R – pulse height on reference pixel, PH cluster – cluster pulse height  Charge Collection Efficiency CCE Cluster pulse height normalized to its maximum value, corresponding to a charge release underneath an output node

13 Charge Sharing Studies CCE Max charge loss:  40% In good agreement with estimated values for capacitive network Interleaved Readout

14 Charge Sharing Studies – Resolution  Resolution:  Interleaved pixels (efficient charge sharing): 3  m  Readout pixels (min charge sharing): 10  m   parameterization allows a coordinate reconstruction and resolution measurement  function Average resolutionResolution vs. spot position

15 Resolution – Conclusion  Binary resolution defined by can be improved by about a factor 4 for a configuration where the ratio between the charge carrier cloud r.m.s. and the pixel pitch  0.8  Similar scaling factor can be expected for a minimum ionizing particle detected by a pixel sensor with 20 - 25  m pitch as long as S/N  100 and the charge loss is  50%

16 Hybrid Pixel Detector with Interleaved Pixels – New Prototype  Pixel pitch – 25  m x 25  m and 25  m x 50  m  Better single point resolution  Lower backplane capacitance  Punch-through mechanism for pixel biasing  Smaller distance between pixels – higher interpixel capacitance  High value of biasing resistance  Elimination of polysilicon resistors from technological process

17 New Prototype - Topology Pixel Bias grid p + diffusion dots for punch-trough mechanism

18 Punch-through Mechanism Simulations ATLAS and ATHENA software (SILVACO) Bias line Pixel electrode

19 Hybrid Pixel Detector with Interleaved Pixels – New Prototype Detectors were fabricated by Institute of Electron Technology, Warsaw Electrostatic characteristics measurements and charge collection studies are planned on a short time scale

20 SOI Monolithic Detector – Motivation The SOI Imager project is partially financed by European Commission within 5-th Framework Program Advantages of SOI monolithic detectors:  SOI imager as a monolithic device allows to reduce total sensor thickness  Performance and radiation tolerance of readout electronics may benefit from reduction of active silicon thickness  SOI solution allows to use high resistive detector substrates

21 SOI Imager – Main Concept Detector  handle wafer  High resistive  300  m thick Electronics  active layer  Low resistive  1.5  m thick Detector: conventional p + -n, DC-coupled Electronics: preliminary solution – conventional bulk MOS technology on the thick SOI substrate

22 SOI Substrate for Monolithic Detectors SOI detectors require high quality handle wafer substrate  Popular SOI production methods base on SIMOX (separation by implantation of oxygen) and Wafer- Bonding (wafer oxidation, bonding and thinning, e.g. BESOI, Unibond®)  Advantages of Unibond® method over SIMOX from SOI imager point of view:  Resistivity of handle (for detector) and donor (for electronics) wafer may be optimized  No silicon inclusions and islands in buried oxide  An order lower dislocation density

23 SOI Imager – Technology Development Technology of SOI detectors – integration of pixel manufacturing technique with typical CMOS polySi gate technology Challenges:  Quasi-simultaneous fabrication of circuits at both sides of the BOX layer  Electrical connection to the pixel junction  Thermal budget of the whole sequence and technological sequence of high temperature processes  Cross-talk between read-out electronics and detector

24 SOI Imager – Technology Development Technological sequence  over 100 processes

25 SOI Imager – Technology Development

26 Technology Development Experiments on SOITEC Wafers  The bulk test structures has been used to produce SOI transistors on SOITEC wafers  The technology sequence was similar as it is provided for SOI detectors  The substrate parameters are exactly the same like for future SOI detectors except low resistivity of the handle wafers Technological experiment was performed to validate and adjust the technology

27 Technology Development Experiments on SOITEC Wafers The CMOS transistors on thin substrate (SOI) have different doping profiles than the bulk ones. Parameters of well implantation were changed to get V th =0.7+/-0.2V at reasonable V BR (  19 V)

28 Technology Development SOI Test Structures For complete technology characterization special SOI test structure was designed  General technological test structures for parameters extraction, investigation of device mismatches, process control, reliability test  Examples of analogue and digital circuits for comparison simulation and measurements results  Specific test structures for SOI detector applications

29 Technology Development SOI Test Structures  Module for extraction of pixels p-n junctions parameters in deep cavities  Reliability test structure: chain of contact windows for pixel detectors and metal1 serpentine over deep detector contact window  Matrices of simple readout channels with contacts to detectors Dedicated test structures for SOI detector application:

30 Technology Development SOI Test Structures Readout circuits with detector contacts on SOI substrate Preliminary solution

31 Technology Development SOI Test Structures The SOI test structures will be fabricated by IET, Warsaw by the end of the year

32 Readout Circuit Development Prototyping in Commercial Technology In parallel with technology development work on readout circuit prototyping is carried on. First prototype was designed in 0.8 AMS technology Readout sequence  Compatible with external CDS processing  Detector dead time is limited to the reset time of integrating element  Integration time of every channel is well defined

33 Conclusion Two paths of active pixel detectors development were presented:  HAPS with interleaved pixels  Prototype detectors have been manufactured  Preliminary charge collection studies have confirmed the validity of this detector concept  Measurements of second prototype (with 25  m ) are planned on a short time scale  SOI detectors  Concept of detector and technological solutions were presented  Dedicated test structure and readout prototype were designed and are expected to be fabricated by the and of the year

Download ppt "Hybrid Active Pixel Sensors and SOI-Inspired Option M. Baranski, W. Kucewicz, S. Kuta, W. Machowski, H. Niemiec, M. Sapor University of Mining and Metallurgy,"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google