1 Introduction to computers Overview l · Grading Policy »Cheating Rules (serious concern) »Examinations and Fixation of Timings »Quizzes »Homework Assignments.
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1 Introduction to computers Overview l · Grading Policy »Cheating Rules (serious concern) »Examinations and Fixation of Timings »Quizzes »Homework Assignments »Cheating l Syllabus and Course Coverage Overview l Introduction to Computers l Preview: Introduction to Networks & Data representation
2 Syllabus and Course Content l Overview of Computer Components and Environments. l Introduction to a Typical Modern Programming Language (Java). l Naming. l Basic Data Types. l Control Structures and Exception Handling (Brief Review). l Arrays and Strings. l Functions. l Recursion. l Modules and Packages. l Data Modeling and Abstraction. l File Handling. l Simple Algorithm Development. l Introduction to Object Orientation. l Simple Graphical User Interface (GUI) Concepts. l Stress on Literate Programming and methodological Program Design, Implementation and Testing.
3 Introduction to computers l Computer Exist Everywhere
4 Introduction to computers – Cont’d l Computers Could be For single purpose or for General purpose.
5 Computers What is a computer? l It is an information transformer. It transforms information from one form to another. l Computers are composed mainly of two parts 1) Hardware 2) Software
6 Computers History l Hardware 1) vacuum tubes 2) transistors 3) Integrated circuits 4) Microprocessors l Programming 1) Machine Language 2) Assembly 3) High-level Language 4) Fourth Generation Languages
7 Computer Hardware Structure and Components l Computer Hardware includes the following components l 1) Memory l 2) CPU= ALU + CU l 3) I/O devices
8 Input Devices l Computer Accepts information from the outside world through an input device l Examples 1) Keyboard 2) Mouse 3) Scanner 4) Camera
9 Output Devices l Computers produces information and sends it to the outside world through an output device l Examples: 1) Screen (CRT-LCD) 2) Printer ( dot-matrix, ink-jet, Laser) 3) speakers
10 Storage (Memory) l For computer to process information. It should be able to store that information and retrieve it when needed l Two main types of memory 1) Primary : information processed by the computer should be stored in primary memory 2) Secondary: secondary memory acts as extension/archive for primary memory. l The information to be processed by the computer should exist in the primary memory
11 Storage l Two main types of Primary memory 1) RAM : volatile 2) ROM : permanent and stores startup information l Secondary Storage: 1) Magnetic Media ( Hard-disks / diskettes) 2) Optical Disks
12 CPU l CPU is the brain of the computer. It is composed of 1) Control unit: Coordinates the operation of all other components 2) Arithematic Logic Unit:Performs all arithmetic and logical operations Factors influencing the CPU 1) Compatibility l Not all software is compatible with any CPUs l No processors of the same family run old software l New Software is not usually compatible with old CPUs 2) CPU families l Intel and Mac for personal computers l SPARC for workstations 3) CPU Speed l 1) Speed in determined by the internal clock l 2) the architecture of the CPU determines its speed
13 Software l Software is a set of instructions that directs computers to do a specific task. l Software to computing is what a recipe to cooking Software is classified into two main categories: l Systems Software l Applications Software
14 System Software l Software is the programs that manage the computer hardware and allow applications to use it seemingly l Examples of System software 1) Assemblers 2) Linkers 3) Compilers 4) Operating System
15 Operating System l Operating System is a system software that manages the computer system resources l OS manages: 1) Communication with I/O devices 2) Processor management 3) Memory management l Examples of Operating Systems 1) Single user: DOS, Windows, Mac 2) Multi-user: Unix
16 Applications Software l Applications are programs that people use to get their work done. Computers mostly exist because people want to run these programs. l Word processors l Game programs l Spreadsheets l Data base systems l Graphics programs l Telecommunication and networking l Multimedia applications