Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 – Central America and the Caribbean"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 7 – Central America and the Caribbean Section NotesVideoPhysical GeographyCentral AmericaThe Caribbean IslandsImpact of TourismMapsCentral America and the Caribbean: PoliticalPhysicalVolcanic ActivityEuropean Colonies in the Caribbean, 1763Central America and the CaribbeanLanguages of Central AmericaClose-upA Market in GuatemalaWorld AlmanacLanguages of the CaribbeanImagesSatellite View: Hurricane IsabelEcotourismCubans DividedClimate Graph: Nassau, BahamasQuick FactsChapter 7 Visual Summary
2 Physical Geography The Big Idea The physical geography of Central America and the Caribbean islands includes warm coastal lowlands, cooler highlands, and tropical forests.Main IdeasPhysical features of the region include volcanic high lands and coastal plains.The climate and vegetation of the region include forested highlands, tropical forests, and humid lowlands.Key natural resources in the region include rich soils for agriculture, a few minerals, and beautiful beaches.
3 Main Idea 1: Physical features of the region include volcanic high lands and coastal plains. Central AmericaSouthern part of North AmericaIncludes Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and PanamaAn isthmus, or narrow strip of land that connects two larger land areasNo wider than 125 miles between Pacific Ocean and Caribbean SeaChain of mountains and volcanoes divides Caribbean and Pacific coastal plainsNo good water route, so difficult to travelThe Caribbean IslandsAcross from Central America in the Caribbean SeaAn archipelago, a large group of islandsGreater Antilles: Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, and Puerto RicoLesser Antilles: Small islands from Virgin Islands to Trinidad to TobagoBahamas: 700 islandsFormed from tops of underwater mountains or volcanoes and coral reefs pushed up by colliding tectonic plates
4 Main Idea 2: The climate and vegetation of the region include forested highlands, tropical forests, and humid lowlands.Humid tropical and tropical savanna climatesPacific coast savannas cleared for plantations and ranchesCaribbean coast rain forestIslandsandCoastalPlainsCool, humid climatesCloud forest, or a moist, high-elevation tropical forest where low clouds are commonInlandMountains
5 Climate Temperatures Hurricanes Little change fromDay to nightSummer to winterChange in season marked by change in rainfallWinters drySummers wetHurricanesThreaten from summer to fallViolent winds, heavy rains, and high seasOccur mostly from June to NovemberDestruction and loss of life
6 Main Idea 3: Key natural resources in the region include rich soils for agriculture, a few minerals, and beautiful beaches.Land and climate attract tourists.Volcanic ash enriched soilCrops include coffee, bananas, sugarcane, and cotton.Export timber from rain forestsVery few mineral and energy resources
7 Central America The Big Idea Central America’s native traditions and colonial history have created a mixed culture, unstable governments, and uncertain economies.Main IdeasThe history of Central America was mostly influenced by Spain.The culture of Central America is a mixture of Native American and European traditions.The countries of Central America today have challenges and opportunities.
8 Main Idea 1: The history of Central America was mostly influenced by Spain. Early HistoryAD 250–900: Maya built large cities with pyramids and temples.Maya descendents live in Guatemala and Belize.Early 1500s: Europeans controlled most of Central America.Britain: Belize and Nicaragua’s coastSpain: Large plantations of tobacco and sugarcaneForced Indians and enslaved Africans to work in mines and plantationsIndependence1821: Independence from SpainRemained joined as the United Provinces of Central America: Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatamala separated.1903: Panama and Columbia separated.1981: Belize independence
9 Since Independence Wealthy landowners continued to run countries. Economy remained based on bananas and coffee.Early to mid-1900s: U.S.-based United Fruit Company controlled most of banana production.The company developed railroads and port facilities.This development improved transportation and communication.People resented role of foreign companies.Mid- to late 1900s: Demands for reform led to armed struggles in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Nicaragua.Peace achieved only in recent years
10 Main Idea 2: The culture of Central America is a mixture of Native American and European traditions. Most people are mestizos, or people of mixed European and Indian ancestry.Descendents of ancient Maya live in Guatemalan Highlands and other places.People of African ancestry live mostly along the Caribbean coast.People speak mostly Spanish, but also native Indian languages and English.PeopleandLanguagesMost people are Roman Catholic.Indian traditions influenced Catholicism.Celebrations are tied to religion: special saints’ feast days and Easter.Traditional foods are corn, tomatoes, hot peppers, and cacao.Religion,Festivals,and Food
11 Main Idea 3: The countries of Central America today have challenges and opportunities. GuatemalaMore than 14 million peopleMost mestizos; almost half IndianLive mostly in small villages in highlands: Fighting killed 200,000 people.Crops: coffee and cardamomBelizeSmallest population in Central AmericaNot much land for agricultureEcotourism, the practice of using an area’s natural environment to attract touristsHondurasMountainous countryTransportation difficult because of rugged landLittle land for farmingExports: citrus fruits and bananas
12 Central America Today El Salvador Land owned by a few rich people 1980s-1992: Civil war, a conflict between two or more groups within a countryFertile soil to grow coffee and sugarcaneCosta RicaHistory of peace and stable, democratic governmentProgress toward reducing povertyCrops: coffee and bananasTourism to rain forestsNicaragua1979: Dictator overthrown by Sandinistas: Civil warRebels aided by the U.S.1990: Democratic elections pushed Sandinistas out of power.PanamaNarrow, southernmost countryCanal links Caribbean Sea and Pacific and Atlantic OceansPanama Canal fees and industry make this region prosperous.:Canal controlled by U.S.
13 The Caribbean Islands The Big Idea The Caribbean islands have a rich history and culture influenced by European colonization.Main IdeasThe history of the Caribbean islands includes European colonization followed by independence.The culture of the Caribbean islands shows signs of past colonialism and slavery.Today the Caribbean islands have distinctive governments with economies that depend on agriculture and tourism.
14 Main Idea 1: The history of the Caribbean islands includes European colonization followed by independence.1492: Christopher Columbus discovered the Caribbean islands, believing them to be the Indies.The islands are now 13 independent countries.These countries show the influence of the first European colonizers.
15 HistoryEarly HistoryColumbus thought he had reached the Indies, and so he called the Caribbean the West Indies.1600s-1700s: The English, French, Dutch, and Danish established colonies on the islands.They built sugarcane plantations that required many workers.Most Caribbean Indians died from disease, so Europeans brought enslaved Africans.Africans and their descendents outnumbered Europeans.Independence1804: Toussaint-L’Ouverture helped Haiti win independence from France and freedom for slaves.Mid-1800s: Dominican Republic1902: Cuba from U.S.After World War II, other Caribbean countries gained independence.Some islands, such as Martinique and Guadeloupe, are still not independent.
16 Main Idea 2: The culture of the Caribbean islands shows signs of past colonialism and slavery. Most islanders are descended from Europeans, Africans, or both.Some Asians, who came to work on plantations after slavery ended, live on the island.PeoplePeople speak Spanish, English, French, and mixtures of African and European languages.Haitians speak French Creole, which is a dialect, or a regional variety of a language.LanguageFormer colonies are mostly Roman Catholic.People also blend Catholicism and traditional African religions.Religion
17 Caribbean Culture Islanders celebrate a variety of holidays. The most widespread is Carnival, before Lent, when people celebrate with big parades, fancy costumes, and music.FestivalsCaribbean food reflects past.Yams and okra from AfricaIn Barbados, souse is made of pigs’ tails, ears, and snouts because slaveholders gave slaves the leftover parts of the pig.People from India brought curry to the region.Foods
18 Main Idea 3: Today the Caribbean islands have distinctive governments with economies that depend on agriculture and tourism.Puerto RicoU.S. commonwealth, or a self-governing territory associated with another countryPeople are U.S. citizens with no voting rights.More developed than other Caribbean countries due to U.S. aid and investmentHaitiMountainous western third of HispaniolaSmall farms, but exports coffee and sugarcanePoorest country due to corruptionMany become refugees, or people fleeing to another country for political or economic reasons.Dominican RepublicEastern part of HispaniolaMore developed than Haiti but not richCapital Santo Domingo is the first permanent European settlement in Western Hemisphere.Economy: agriculture and growing tourism
19 Caribbean Islands Today CubaLargest and most populous island with Havana as capitalSince 1959: Run by a Communist government headed by Fidel CastroCommunists took over U.S. owned businesses, so U.S. banned trade.Farms are cooperatives, or organizations owned by its members and operated for mutual benefit.Government controls the media.Other IslandsJamaica is the largest of these other islands.Saint Kitts and Nevis is the smallest.A number of islands are territories of the U.S., Britain, France, and the Netherlands.Some islands have land to grow coffee, sugarcane, and spices.Others attract tourists.New construction for tourists can harm natural environment.