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The Evolution of Management Thought

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Presentation on theme: "The Evolution of Management Thought"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Evolution of Management Thought
Chapter 1

2 Major Tasks of Management:
Decide the purpose and mission of the organization Make work productive Manage social impacts and responsibilities

3 Management Has Different Meanings
Primary views of management state that management is a: Process Discipline Human activity Career

4 Management Is a Process
Implies that management: Is some type of work or set of activities Activities are performed well or not well Involves certain functions and activities

5 Management Is a Discipline
Implies that management: Is an accumulated, “learnable” body of knowledge Is a subject with principles, concepts, and theories Has a purpose of learning how to apply principles, concepts, and theories at the right time and under the right circumstances to produce desired results

6 Management Is a Human Activity
Implies that management: Refers to people in the management process Refers to and emphasizes employees’ importance

7 Management Is a Career Implies that management:
Is a progression through a sequence of activities, jobs, organizations, and challenges Requires constant learning of new skills and updating information on business and its industry

8 The Functions of Management
Leading Planning Organizing Controlling

9 Management Function—Leading
Integrates everything a manager does Leader has: Ability to influence others Vision or mission Courage and commitment

10 Management Function—Planning
Capstone activity of management All managers plan at all levels Determine an organization’s goals in order to be successful Establish strategies to achieve goals

11 Management Function—Organizing
Turn plans into actions Create a structure of task and authority relationships to achieve goals Assign tasks to individuals and groups

12 Management Function—Controlling
Ensure that actual performance conforms to planned performance requiring management to: Establish standards of performance Locate deviations between actual and planned standards Correct performance not meeting standards

13 History of Management Thought

14 Management Thought Has Been Grouped Into Three Approaches:
Classical Behavioral Management Science

15 Classical Approach

16 Classical Approach Late 19th century effort to understand work and how workers can be more productive and efficient Two perspectives: Scientific management Classical organization theory

17 Scientific Management
Focus is on the management of work Focus on the physical environment Concentrate on the problems of lower-level managers dealing with the everyday problems of the work force Study work processes to make them more efficient in order to better use labor at that time—unskilled, no formal education, largely immigrant Primary contributors—engineers

18 Scientific Management—Contributors
Frederick W. Taylor, “father of scientific management,” developed 4 principles based on his beliefs that the interests of both management & labor can be combined: 1 best way to do a job Optimum work pace Train people to do a job Reward using incentive pay system Frank & Lillian Gilbreth, “time & motion studies,” break down job motions into elementary parts and find better ways to perform each part

19 Classical Organization Theory
Focus is on the management of organizations Concentrate on the problems top-level managers face in managing the organization as a whole Two major purposes: Develop basic principles to create, and maintain large organizations Identify basic functions of managing organizations Primary contributors—practicing executives

20 Classical Organization Theory—Contributors
Max Weber, “theory of bureaucracy,” thought an organization should be based on 5 principles: Formal authority of managers Jobs based on qualifications Authority and responsibility clearly defined Hierarchical positions Rules and SOPs control organization Modern ideas based on Weber: TQM, process specialization, competency testing

21 Classical Organization Theory—Contributors (cont)
Henri Fayol developed 14 principles essential to effective management: 1. Division of labor 2. Management authority and responsibility 3. Unity of command 4. Line of Authority 5. Centralization 6. Unity of direction 7. Equity 8. Order 9. Initiative 10. Discipline 11. Remuneration 12. Tenure Stability 13. Common Interest 14. Esprit De Corps

22 Classical Approach—Pros & Cons
Contributions Identify management as an important element of organized society Basis for training new managers Acknowledge importance of managers Many current techniques are direct outgrowths Limitations Too simplistic for today’s complex organizations More appropriate for stable & predictable environments Shallow understanding of human nature and how people interact

23 Behavioral Approach

24 Behavioral Approach Developed because (a) classical approach didn’t achieve total efficiency and workplace harmony and (b) managers still encountered problems because workers didn’t always behave as they were supposed to Two branches: Human Relations Approach Behavioral Sciences Approach

25 Human Relations Approach
Focus on the social environment of a job Refers to the manner in which managers interact with subordinates Managers must know why subordinates behave as they do Importance of individuals in success or failure of an organization

26 Human Relations Approach—(cont.)
Management should recognize employees’ need for recognition and social acceptance Management should look on work group as a positive force Managers should be trained in human relations skills as well as in technical skills

27 Behavioral Sciences Approach
Focus is on the nature of work itself Individuals are motivated to work for reasons other than money and social relationships— recognition, societal contributions, personal fulfillment

28 Behavioral Sciences Approach—Contributors
Mary Parker Follett viewed organizations from the perspective of individual or group behavior, i.e., people-centered view. Managers’ job is to harmonize and coordinate group efforts Hawthorne Studies varied lighting levels at the Western Electric Company; productivity increased regardless of the illumination level Elton Mayo replicated Hawthorne Studies and the results; workers enjoyed the attention and produced the results they believed researchers wanted

29 Behavioral Sciences Approach—Pros & Cons
Contributions Contribute to people—managing aspect of management Use of teams Focus on training & development Use of reward & incentive systems Limitations Doesn’t always help managers in problem situations Difficulty in translating technical findings into useful tools and policies Variety of viewpoints complicates the problem

30 Management Science Approach

31 Management Science Approach
Developed to solve complex military problems in World War II, American business firms began to use a similar approach to deal with operating issues Formerly called operations research, this approach uses mathematics and statistics to aid in resolving production and operations problems Solve technical rather than human behavior problems; analyze the problem and often develop a mathematical representation of it Provide management with quantitative bases for decisions

32 Management Science Approach—Pros & Cons
Contributions Techniques that help with production management—scheduling, budgeting, inventory Techniques that help with operations management— development programs, aircraft scheduling Limitations Not a substitute for management Doesn’t deal with the people aspect of a organization

33 Systems Approach Contingency Approach
Integrating the 3 Approaches— Classical, Behavioral, and Management Science Systems Approach Contingency Approach

34 Systems Approach Views an organization as interrelated parts with a unified purpose: surviving and ideally thriving in its environment Management should focus on efficiency and effectiveness in each part of the organization Elements of an organization are interconnected Organization is linked to its environment Open Systems vs. Closed Systems

35 Contingency Approach Helps in better understanding the interactions of an organization’s components. Views an organization as interrelated parts with a unified purpose: surviving and ideally thriving in its environment Workplace situations are too complex to analyze and control; thus, instead of focusing on trying to find the one best way to arrange workplace variables, managers focus on adapting their behavior to match the demands of the situation

36 End of Chapter 1

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