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Creating And Maintaining A Database. 2 Learn the guidelines for designing databases When designing a database, first try to think of all the fields of.

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Presentation on theme: "Creating And Maintaining A Database. 2 Learn the guidelines for designing databases When designing a database, first try to think of all the fields of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Creating And Maintaining A Database

2 2 Learn the guidelines for designing databases When designing a database, first try to think of all the fields of data that needs to be stored. Next, group the fields into tables. Each table will contain a group of related fields. You need to select a field in each table to become the primary key for that table. When tables will be related to one another, you need to include a common field in the two tables that will be used to form the relationship.

3 3 Determining database fields

4 4 Group the fields into tables

5 5 Choose a primary key Choose a field or fields to serve as the primary key for the table. A primary key must uniquely identify each record in the table. Primary keys can consist of more than one field. –Primary keys with more than one field are called composite keys

6 6 Include a common field When one table needs to be related to another table, you must include a common field. The common field will be the primary key in one table. The common field is referred to as a foreign key in the related table. The foreign key in a table can then be used as a primary key to access the record in the related table.

7 7 Data redundancy wastes space and can lead to data errors

8 8 Setting field properties When assigning a name to any object in Access, carefully select a name that will indicate what data is stored there. Field properties include their data type, field sizes, and an optional description of the field. When selecting a field size, make sure the size is big enough to hold the largest piece of data that will be stored there. –Do not make the field larger then necessary because this will result in wasted disk space Make sure the data type you select for a field is appropriate for the kind of data to be stored in that field.

9 9 Access field types

10 10 Access field types

11 11 Create a new database You can create a new database by using a Database Wizard or by creating a new, blank database. When you create a new database, you will need to create all the tables, queries, forms, and reports for the database. –This is the most flexible approach, since you will create all objects yourself

12 12 Create a database without using the Database Wizard To create a new, blank database without using the Database Wizard: –Start Access –Click Blank Database in the task pane –In the dialog box, navigate to the location where you will save your database –Enter the name of the database in the File name text box –Click the Create button

13 13 Create a new table

14 14 Define fields, and specify a table's primary key When you create a table, you name the fields and define the properties for the fields. –The table structure is set up and modified in Design View –In Design View, you will define each field that will be included in the table When all the fields have been defined, you will then specify which field(s) will be the primary key. –The primary key is not mandatory, but it is a good idea to assign one

15 15 The database Design View window

16 16 Choosing a primary key Click a row selector for the field you want to use as the primary key, and then click the Primary Key button on the toolbar. After clicking the Primary Key button, a key symbol appears in the row selector to indicate the key field.

17 17 Save the new table When all fields have been defined and properties have been set, you must save the table structure: –Click the Save button on the Table Design toolbar –Type the name you want to assign to the table into the Table Name text box of the Save As dialog box –Click the OK button to save the table using the specified name

18 18 Add records to a table using Datasheet View Once the table has been created, you can then add records to the table using Datasheet View. As you enter records, they will be placed in the order in which you enter them. However, when you close the table and open it again, the records will be ordered according to the primary key order. The navigation bar at the bottom of the Datasheet view will indicate how many records are in the table and what the current record is (i.e., the record on which your cursor currently rests). You can move through the fields in the table by pressing the Tab key. Once your cursor is moved off a record, that record is automatically saved on your disk.

19 19 Datasheet View with 2 records added

20 20 Modify the structure of a table by deleting, moving, and adding fields The structure of a table can be modified after it has been created. To delete a field, enter Design View, right-click on the field, and then click Delete Rows on the drop down menu. To move a field, (you also do this in Design View) click on the field you want to move, and while holding your mouse button down, move the field to the desired location. To add a field in Design View, right-click the field where you want to insert the new field and then click Insert Rows on the dropdown menu.

21 21 Moving a field in Design View

22 22 Adding a new field in Design View 1. Right-click the row selector for the field you want to insert the new field in front of--StartDate in this figure. 2. Select Insert Rows from the shortcut menu, and a new, blank row will be inserted before the row you selected, as shown below. 3. Enter the information for the new field.

23 23 Change field properties You can make additional modifications to the structure of a table by changing the properties of the table's fields. –For example, if you have a field that represents a currency value but you do not want to display dollar signs, you could change the format to a standard format –In the Design View, you will find a list of all formats available to you. You can make a selection from the list of options –Each data type has a separate set of options available in the Field Properties portion of the Table Design Window Field properties are changed in the Design View window.

24 24 Changing field properties in Design View

25 25 Copy records from another Access database If the data you want in your database already exists in another Access database, you can copy the records from that database into your database. You can use cut and paste to do this: –Open the database that contains the records you want to copy –Select the records you want to copy and then press the Copy button. This places the records onto the Windows clipboard –Open the database to which you want to copy the records and open the desired table to receive the copied records –Place your cursor on the next available row in the table and press the Paste button

26 26 Import a table from another Access database You can also import an entire table, including its structure, into another database. To import a database table: –Click the File menu –Point to Get External Data, and then Import –Locate and select the database and the table you want to import This differs from the cut and paste method because you actually import the entire table, its structure, and its data.

27 27 The Import Objects dialog box

28 28 Copy and import considerations If you choose to copy records from one table to another, it is very important that you first determine that the two tables have the exact same data structure. –If the two data structures differ in any way, the copy will cause an error When you import, you are importing an entire table, including its data and its structure. –This is a good way to include a table in your database that was previously designed in a different database

29 29 Delete and change records Once records have been added to a table, they can be deleted or modified: –In Datasheet view, click the row selector for the record(s) you want to delete and then click the Delete Record button on the toolbar To change or modify a record: –Place your cursor on the record and then on the field you want to change –You can then edit the field's value as you wish by typing in new data You can switch from navigation mode to editing mode depending on what you want to do at the time. –When you are editing a record, you are in editing mode, Otherwise you are in navigation mode –Editing mode is indicated by a pencil symbol in the left margin of the datasheet view

30 30 An alternate method for deleting a record

31 31 Keystroke techniques for navigation and editing modes

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