 # Vectors in Physics (Continued)

## Presentation on theme: "Vectors in Physics (Continued)"— Presentation transcript:

Vectors in Physics (Continued)
Chapter 3 Vectors in Physics (Continued) PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I

PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I
Outline Components of a vector How to find the components of a vector if knowing its magnitude and direction How to find the magnitude and direction of a vector if knowing its components Express a vector in terms of unit vectors Adding vectors using the Components Method PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I

The graphical method of adding vectors is not recommended when high accuracy is required or in three-dimensional problems. Components method (rectangular resolution): A method of adding vectors that uses the projections of vectors along coordinate axes. PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I

PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I
Components of a Vector Components of a vector: The projections of a vector along coordinate axes are called the components of the vector. Vector A and its components Ax and Ay The component Ax represents the projection of A along the x axis. The component Ay represents the projection of A along the y axis. PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I

Find the Components of a Vector Given its Magnitude and Direction
If vector A has magnitude A and direction , then its components are Ax = A cos Ay = A sin Note: According to convention, angle  is measured counterclockwise from the +x axis. PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I

Signs of the Components Ax and Ay
II III IV The signs of the components Ax and Ay depend on the angle , or in which quadrants vector A lies. Component Ax is positive if vector Ax points in the +x direction. Component Ax is negative if vector Ax points in the -x direction. The same is true for component Ay. PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I

PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I
Example: Find the Components of a Vector Find Ax and Ay for the vector A with magnitude and direction given by (1) A = 3.5 m and  = 60°. (2) A = 3.5 m and  = 120°. (3) A = 3.5 m and  = 240°. (4) A = 3.5 m and  = 300°. PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I

Find the Magnitude and Direction of A Given its Components Ax and Ay
The magnitude and direction of A are related to its components through the expressions: A = (Ax2 + Ay2)1/2  = tan-1(Ay/Ax) Note: Pay attention to the signs of Ax and Ay to find the correct values for . PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I

Example: Find the Magnitude and Direction of a Vector
Find magnitude B and direction  for the vector B with components (1) Bx = 75.5 m and By = 6.20 m. (2) Bx = m and By = 6.20 m. (3) Bx = m and By = m. (4) Bx = m and By = m. PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I

Express Vectors Using Unit Vectors
Unit vectors: A unit vector is a dimensionless vector having a magnitude of exactly 1. Unit vectors are used to specify a given direction and have no other physical significance. Symbols i, j, and k represent unit vectors pointing in the +x, +y, and +z directions. Using unit vectors i and j, vector A is expressed as: A = Axi + Ayj PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I

Adding Vectors Using the Components Method
Suppose that A = Axi + Ayj and B = Bxi + Byj. Then, the resultant vector R = A + B = (Ax + Bx)i + (Ay + By)j. When using the components method to add vectors, all we do is find the x and y components of each vector and then add the x and y components separately. PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I

Example: The Sum of Two Vectors (with Components Method)
Two vectors A and B lie in the xy plane and are given by A = (2.0i + 2.0j) m and B = (2.0i - 4.0j) m. (1) Find the sum of A and B expressed in terms of unit vectors. (2) Find the x and y components of the sum. (3) Find the magnitude R and direction  of the the sum. PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I