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**Vectors in Physics (Continued)**

Chapter 3 Vectors in Physics (Continued) PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I

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**PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I**

Outline Components of a vector How to find the components of a vector if knowing its magnitude and direction How to find the magnitude and direction of a vector if knowing its components Express a vector in terms of unit vectors Adding vectors using the Components Method PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I

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**Components Method for Adding Vectors**

The graphical method of adding vectors is not recommended when high accuracy is required or in three-dimensional problems. Components method (rectangular resolution): A method of adding vectors that uses the projections of vectors along coordinate axes. PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I

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**PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I**

Components of a Vector Components of a vector: The projections of a vector along coordinate axes are called the components of the vector. Vector A and its components Ax and Ay The component Ax represents the projection of A along the x axis. The component Ay represents the projection of A along the y axis. PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I

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**Find the Components of a Vector Given its Magnitude and Direction**

If vector A has magnitude A and direction , then its components are Ax = A cos Ay = A sin Note: According to convention, angle is measured counterclockwise from the +x axis. PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I

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**Signs of the Components Ax and Ay**

II III IV The signs of the components Ax and Ay depend on the angle , or in which quadrants vector A lies. Component Ax is positive if vector Ax points in the +x direction. Component Ax is negative if vector Ax points in the -x direction. The same is true for component Ay. PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I

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**PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I**

Example: Find the Components of a Vector Find Ax and Ay for the vector A with magnitude and direction given by (1) A = 3.5 m and = 60°. (2) A = 3.5 m and = 120°. (3) A = 3.5 m and = 240°. (4) A = 3.5 m and = 300°. PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I

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**Find the Magnitude and Direction of A Given its Components Ax and Ay**

The magnitude and direction of A are related to its components through the expressions: A = (Ax2 + Ay2)1/2 = tan-1(Ay/Ax) Note: Pay attention to the signs of Ax and Ay to find the correct values for . PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I

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**Example: Find the Magnitude and Direction of a Vector**

Find magnitude B and direction for the vector B with components (1) Bx = 75.5 m and By = 6.20 m. (2) Bx = m and By = 6.20 m. (3) Bx = m and By = m. (4) Bx = m and By = m. PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I

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**Express Vectors Using Unit Vectors**

Unit vectors: A unit vector is a dimensionless vector having a magnitude of exactly 1. Unit vectors are used to specify a given direction and have no other physical significance. Symbols i, j, and k represent unit vectors pointing in the +x, +y, and +z directions. Using unit vectors i and j, vector A is expressed as: A = Axi + Ayj PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I

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**Adding Vectors Using the Components Method**

Suppose that A = Axi + Ayj and B = Bxi + Byj. Then, the resultant vector R = A + B = (Ax + Bx)i + (Ay + By)j. When using the components method to add vectors, all we do is find the x and y components of each vector and then add the x and y components separately. PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I

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**Example: The Sum of Two Vectors (with Components Method)**

Two vectors A and B lie in the xy plane and are given by A = (2.0i + 2.0j) m and B = (2.0i - 4.0j) m. (1) Find the sum of A and B expressed in terms of unit vectors. (2) Find the x and y components of the sum. (3) Find the magnitude R and direction of the the sum. PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I

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**Example: Adding Vectors Using Components**

A commuter airplane takes a route shown in the figure. First, it flies from the origin of the coordinate system shown to city A, located 175 km in a direction 30.0° north of east. Next, it flies 153 km 20.0° west of north to city B. Finally, it flies 195 km due west to city C. Find the location of city C relative to the origin. o PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I

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**PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I**

Homework See online homework assignment at Hand-written homework assignment: Chapter 3, Page 77, Problems: #20 Note: When drawing the vectors, include the scale ratio used. PHY 1151 Principles of Physics I

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