Problem Analysis Intelligence Step 2 - Problem Analysis Developing solutions to complex population nutrition problems (such as obesity or food insecurity)
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Problem Analysis Intelligence Step 2 - Problem Analysis Developing solutions to complex population nutrition problems (such as obesity or food insecurity) is more effective when based on a variety of intelligence sources Problem analysis is a step in the analytical stage of the intervention bi- cycle that helps specify the nature of public health nutrition (PHN) problems.
Public Health Intelligence Intelligence is a more expansive concept of evidence than is commonly referred to in health evidence evidence from randomised control trials or other reductionist or rigid research methods Intelligence, in addition to research literature, includes information derived from consultation with the Population - those living with the problem Experts - those who have lived the research relating to the problem Practitioners – those who practice in trying to solve the problem on a daily basis Problem Analysis
What is Problem Analysis? Problem analysis involves conducting a detailed assessment of the populations’ needs or problems includes examination of both general population issues and the specific nutrition-related health problem The process of problem analysis builds upon the activities and relationships established through the community engagement step Problem analysis and intelligence gathering aids the development of successful strategies and helps to prevention or inappropriate or ineffective action.
Problem Analysis Defining the Problem Understanding the problem is important to ensure interventions are based on intelligence rather than assumptions, professional opinions or limited knowledge To understand a PHN problem a variety of intelligence is needed Answering the following questions helps to define the problem: What is the nature and characteristics of communities? Are current services and initiatives are responding to illness and promoting population health? Are there gaps in services and initiatives? What environmental changes are required for better health?
Problem Analysis Types of Need A need can be considered a subjective judgement or as an objective fundamental human right A health planning taxonomy classifies four types of need: 1.Felt need – stated want or desire 2.Expressed need – identified demand on a particular health service 3.Comparative need – inconsistent health service provision between two similar communities 4.Normative need – community needs defined by experts
Problem Analysis Methodology The process of conducting a problem analysis can vary in terms of duration and research technique, depending on staff, financial and other resources limitations General considerations for conducting a problem analysis include: Participation – involve community members and key stakeholders Time – take time to properly assess the situation from all angles Financial and other resources – problem analysis can provide useful information for a range of stakeholders → pool resources Data gathering – gather and analyse a variety of data capitalising on of all stakeholders involved Problem Analysis
Qualitative V’s Quantitative methods Two main different paradigms of data gathering can be used to assist problem analysis: qualitative and quantitative Qualitative Qualitative research is grounded in and emerges from real life experience Thoughts, feelings and attitudes are explored through methods such as interview, observation and case studies to enable the researcher to understand the perspective of the participants. Examples of qualitative techniques: Observation, interviews, focus groups, Delphie technique Problem Analysis
Qualitative V’s Quantitative methods Quantitative Quantitative research involves the process of gathering objective data that can be objectively measured and assessed. Quantitative research attempts to measure aspects of a situation and to explain any differences in the variables over time Example techniques include: Surveys National health data collections Data from other organisations Epidemiological data
Problem Analysis Qualitative and Quantitative methods Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods will produce a variety of intelligence for problem analysis A combination of qualitative and quantitative data will enable you to clearly and succinctly describe the problem/issue A combination of qualitative and quantitative data is important for the team to agree on what the problem is A combination of qualitative and quantitative data helps focus the strategies for finding solutions to the PHN problem identified
Problem Analysis SWOT Analysis A SWOT analysis identifies the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the leading organisation, community and external stakeholders involved in the intervention A SWOT analysis is an effective means of identifying support and potential stumbling blocks for change A SWOT analysis includes nutrition and health issues but also explores unfolding political, social and technological and other forces that could influence the mission, strategy, goals and operations of the organization and community in the future
SWOT Analysis A SWOT analysis is completed in 4 steps: 1.Internal analysis – examine the capabilities and strengths of the organisation and community (management, program delivery, financial) 2.External analysis – Identify the main points in the environment that pose opportunities for the organisation, community and intervention, and those that pose threats or obstacles to implementing the intervention. 3.Enter collected information - from steps 1 and 2 into a table 4.Succinctly define the problem and develop intervention strategies Problem Analysis
Fact, issues, trend, forcePositiveNegativeKey implications Internal assessment Consider resources (personnel, facilities, etc.), competencies, culture, effectiveness of current mission and strategy, and past performance StrengthsWeaknesses External assessment Consider political, economic, social, educational technological, and other trends and forces; demographics and epidemiological data; expectations OpportunitiesThreats SWOT Analysis Table
Applying the Intelligence and Analysis Results The problem analysis results are used to effectively plan, implement and evaluate population based nutrition interventions The introduction section or rationale for an intervention plan is largely a description of your need, problem and determinant analysis. The information from the problem analysis also largely provides the introduction section or rationale for an intervention plan The intervention plan is vital for securing management support for your PHN intervention and when applying for financial support from an external agency Problem Analysis
Example format for displaying problem analysis results Question DATAWhat is the problem? Who does the problem affect and how many are affected? IMPACTWhat are the attributable effects, costs etc of the problem (premature morbidity, burden of disease etc)? What are the consequences of doing nothing? SUPPORTAre the issues important to community members? Is there community support? Are there resources available to support addressing the issue? Problem Analysis