2 I. ReviewQs:1. How do you understand that “linguistics is the scientific study of language”?2. What’s the difference between phonetics and phonology?3. What’s the difference between semantics and pragmatics?4. Why is speech considered as the primary medium of human language?
3 II. Other Important Distinctions 4. Langue Vs. ParoleLangue: the abstract linguistic system shared by all members of a speech community.Parole: the realization of langue in actual use.A Sociological View
4 Ferdinand de Saussure( ), Swiss, founder of structuralism, modern linguistics, semiology.Course in General Linguistics, 1916
5 5. Competence Vs Performance Competence: the ideal user’s knowledge of the rules of his languagePerformance: the actual realization of this knowledge in linguistic communicationA Psychological View
6 Avram Noam Chomsky(1928-), founder of TG(Pp. 42), a revolution to structuralism.LAD- (Pp.145)-PPH-Universal GrammarST-EST-REST
7 6. Traditional Grammar VS. Modern Linguistics Three Criteria:1. Exclude linguistic facts such as “we can’t …”, “taller than me”, etc2. Use written material as the material for analysis3. Apply Latin-based model to other languages
8 III. Definition of Language Question:What’s language?
9 Webster' s New World Dictionary (Pp. 759) [ 1 ] (a) human speech;(b)the ability to communicate by this means;(c) a system of vocal sounds and combinations of such sounds to which meaning is attributed, used for the expression or communication of thoughts and feelings;(d) the written representation of such a system;
10 Webster' s New World Dictionary (Pp. 759)  (a) 'any means of expressing or communicating, as gestures, signs, or animal sounds;(b) a special set of symbols; letters, numerals, rules etc. used for the transmission of information, as in a computer; ...
11 A Generally Accepted Definition Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication.
12 Understanding the Definition QS:1. Why a system?2. Why arbitrary?3. Why vocal?4. Why symbols?5. Why human?6. Why communication?
13 IV. Functions of Language Question:What do you think are the functions of language?
14 Elements of Communication: Jakobson’s Model (1960) ContextReferentialAddresser Message AddresseeEmotive Poetic ConativeContactPhaticCodeMetalingual
15 Metafunctions of Language: Halliday’s Model 1. Ideational: Constructs a model of experience and constructs logical relations ( through transitive system)(Linguistic Constructionism)2. Interpersonal: enacts social relationships (through mood and modality)3. Contextual: creates relevance to context (through coherence and cohesion)Systemic Functional Linguistics
16 M. A. K. Halliday（韩礼德）(1925-), founder of systemic functional linguistics, studied at Beijing University, studied at Ling Nan University, 1955 got doctor’s degree at Cambridge University with The Language of the Chinese “Secret History of the Mongols”
17 Summary of the Functions of Language 1. Informative （信息功能）: Language serves an informative function when it is used to tell what the speaker believes, to give information about facts, or to reason things out.By use of Declarative Sentences
18 Summary of the Functions of Language 2. Interrogative（询问功能）: When language is used to get information from others, it serves an interrogative functionThrough Questions that expect answers.
19 Summary of the Functions of Language 3. Interpersonal（人际功能）: Language serves an interpersonal function when it is used to establish and maintain their status in a society.Five sub-categories of interpersonal function: performative, directive, emotive, expressive, and phatic.
20 Summary of the Functions of Language 3.1 Performative（行事功能）: the use of language to “do things”, to perform actions.Through quite formal and even ritualized language.
21 Summary of the Functions of Language 3.2 Directive（指令功能）: When language is used to get the hearer do something, it serves a directive function.Most Imperative sentences.Wne
22 Summary of the Functions of Language 3.3 Emotive（感情功能）: the use of language to create certain feelings in the hearer.Through Jokes, Advertising, Propaganda, etc.
23 Summary of the Functions of Language 3.4 Expressive（表达功能）: the use of language to reveal something about the feelings and attitudes of the speaker.Through Exclamations, etc.
24 Summary of the Functions of Language 3.5 Phatic（寒暄功能）: the use of language to establish an atmosphere or maintaining social contact.E.g. Greetings, Farewells, and Comments on the weather, etc.
25 Summary of the Functions of Language 4. Recreational（娱乐功能）: the use of language for the sheer joy of using it.E.g. baby’s babbling, poetry, etc.
26 Summary of the Functions of Language 5. Metalingual（元语言功能）: the use of language to talk about language itself.This makes language infinitely self-reflexive: We human beings can talk about talk and think about thinking, and thus only humans can ask what it means to communicate, to think, to be human.
27 Home Work1. Q6, Pp. 12 (written)2. Prepare the rest of the chapter.