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Instructor’s Name Semester, 200_

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Presentation on theme: "Instructor’s Name Semester, 200_"— Presentation transcript:

1 Instructor’s Name Semester, 200_

2 Chapter Objectives Describe the importance of injuries as a community health problem. Explain why the terms accidents and safety have been replaced by the currently more acceptable terms unintentional injuries, injury prevention, and injury control when dealing with such occurrences. Briefly explain the difference between intentional injuries and provide examples of each.

3 Chapter Objectives List the four elements usually included in the definition of the term unintentional injury. Summarize the epidemiology of unintentional injuries. List strategies for the prevention and control of unintentional injuries. Explain how education, regulation, automatic protection, and litigation can reduce the number and seriousness of unintentional injuries

4 Chapter Objectives Define the term intentional injuries and provide examples of behavior that results in intentional injuries. Describe the scope of intentional injuries as a community health problem in the United States. List some contributing factors to domestic violence and some strategies for reducing it.

5 Chapter Objectives List some of the contributing factors to the increase in violence related to youth gangs and explain what communities can do to reduce this level of violence. Discuss intervention approaches in preventing or controlling intentional injuries.

6 Definitions Injury Unintentional injuries Intentional injuries
acute exposure to physical agents interacting with the body in amounts or at rates that exceed the threshold of human tolerance. Unintentional injuries are those judged to have occurred without anyone intending harm to be done Intentional injuries have been purposely inflicted whether by oneself or another

7 Characteristics of Unintentional Injuries
1. Unplanned events 2. Preceded by an unsafe act or condition 3. Accompanied by economic loss 4. Interrupt the efficient completion of tasks.

8 Cost of Injuries to Society
5.8 million death per year worldwide 150,000 deaths per year in the US 94331 unintentional 30,575 suicides 17,893 homicides 54 million injuries 21 million disabling injuries $469 billion /year

9 Injury Deaths U.S. (1998)

10 Causes of Years of Potential Life Lost (per 100,000 pop.)

11 Cost Estimate ($billions 1996 dollars)

12 Number of Deaths (1996)

13 Unintentional Injuries
Motor vehicle crashes #1 cause of unintentional injury deaths 41,611 fatalities in 1999 3.3 million non-fatal injuries in 1999 Other types - falls 17,100 deaths - suffocation - poisonings 10,500 deaths - fires & burns - drowning 4, discharge of firearms

14 Epidemiology of Unintentional Injuries
Person Age leading cause of death in the 1-44 year age group Gender males are twice as likely as females Race leading cause of death for all racial & ethnic groups excepts Blacks

15 Epidemiology of Unintentional Injuries
Place Home more unintentional injuries occur in the home than in any other place Highway ranks 2nd for non-fatal injuries; ranks 1st for unintentional injury deaths Recreation/Sports Area Third mostly likely place to sustain injury Workplace 4th highest rate of unintentional injuries

16 Unintentional Deaths Location (US 1999)

17 Epidemiology of Unintentional Injuries
Time Motor Vehicle Crashes highest rate in January and December alcohol involved in half of fatal crashes Drowning more occur in the summer months alcohol is involved in nearly half Fires more occur in the winter months

18 Prevention through Epidemiology
Injury Prevention & Control Contributors Hugh De Haven John E. Gordon William Haddon, Jr. Public Health Model similar to communicable disease model - except agent is “energy” in this model

19 Public Health Model for Unintentional Injuries
Energy Host Environment Public Health Model for Unintentional Injuries

20 Public Health Model for Unintentional Injuries
Energy Control tactics based upon interrupting transmission of damaging energy to host. Host Environment Public Health Model for Unintentional Injuries

21 Public Health Model for Unintentional Injuries
A. Prevent accumulation of energy B. Prevent the inappropriate release of energy C. Place a barrier between host & agent D. Completely separate the host from the source of energy Energy Control tactics based upon interrupting transmission of damaging energy to host. Host Environment Public Health Model for Unintentional Injuries

22 Community Approach to Prevention of Unintentional Injuries
Education Regulations Emergency Response System Automatic Protection Litigation

23 Injuries Intentional Types approximately 50,000 people die each year
approximately 2.2 million receive nonfatal injuries as a result of interpersonal violence Types Assaults Family Violence Rape Robbery Suicide Homicide

24 Epidemiology of Intentional Injuries
Rates of homicide, assault, & rape homicide rate 9.8 per 100,000 declining rates risk factors Suicide & attempted suicide nearly 30,000 suicides are reported each year rates among the young have tripled since 1950 Firearm injuries 2nd leading cause of injury death 60% of homicide & 55% of suicides involved a firearm

25 Violence in our Society
Individuals & Violence lack communication & problem solving skills firearms are easy to obtain & deadly Family Violence & Abuse 1 in 6 homicides is the result of family violence Child Maltreatment Child abuse Child neglect Intimate Partner Violence Model for abuse Gangs & Violence

26 Violent Episode Crisis state Stress period Honeymoon Calmness

27 Approaches to Prevention
Education Safe School/Healthy Student Initiative Employment & Recreation Opportunities Regulation & Enforcement Brady Bill Electronic detection of weapons Other types of regulation Counseling & Treatment represent secondary & tertiary prevention

28 Community Health Problem
Chapter 17 Injuries As A Community Health Problem

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