2 Chapter ObjectivesDescribe the importance of injuries as a community health problem.Explain why the terms accidents and safety have been replaced by the currently more acceptable terms unintentional injuries, injury prevention, and injury control when dealing with such occurrences.Briefly explain the difference between intentional injuries and provide examples of each.
3 Chapter ObjectivesList the four elements usually included in the definition of the term unintentional injury.Summarize the epidemiology of unintentional injuries.List strategies for the prevention and control of unintentional injuries.Explain how education, regulation, automatic protection, and litigation can reduce the number and seriousness of unintentional injuries
4 Chapter ObjectivesDefine the term intentional injuries and provide examples of behavior that results in intentional injuries.Describe the scope of intentional injuries as a community health problem in the United States.List some contributing factors to domestic violence and some strategies for reducing it.
5 Chapter ObjectivesList some of the contributing factors to the increase in violence related to youth gangs and explain what communities can do to reduce this level of violence.Discuss intervention approaches in preventing or controlling intentional injuries.
6 Definitions Injury Unintentional injuries Intentional injuries acute exposure to physical agents interacting with the body in amounts or at rates that exceed the threshold of human tolerance.Unintentional injuriesare those judged to have occurred without anyone intending harm to be doneIntentional injurieshave been purposely inflicted whether by oneself or another
7 Characteristics of Unintentional Injuries 1. Unplanned events2. Preceded by an unsafe act or condition3. Accompanied by economic loss4. Interrupt the efficient completion of tasks.
8 Cost of Injuries to Society 5.8 million death per year worldwide150,000 deaths per year in the US94331 unintentional30,575 suicides17,893 homicides54 million injuries21 million disabling injuries$469 billion /year
13 Unintentional Injuries Motor vehicle crashes#1 cause of unintentional injury deaths41,611 fatalities in 19993.3 million non-fatal injuries in 1999Other types- falls 17,100 deaths - suffocation- poisonings 10,500 deaths - fires & burns- drowning 4, discharge of firearms
14 Epidemiology of Unintentional Injuries PersonAgeleading cause of death in the 1-44 year age groupGendermales are twice as likely as femalesRaceleading cause of death for all racial & ethnic groups excepts Blacks
15 Epidemiology of Unintentional Injuries PlaceHomemore unintentional injuries occur in the home than in any other placeHighwayranks 2nd for non-fatal injuries; ranks 1st for unintentional injury deathsRecreation/Sports AreaThird mostly likely place to sustain injuryWorkplace4th highest rate of unintentional injuries
17 Epidemiology of Unintentional Injuries TimeMotor Vehicle Crasheshighest rate in January and Decemberalcohol involved in half of fatal crashesDrowningmore occur in the summer monthsalcohol is involved in nearly halfFiresmore occur in the winter months
18 Prevention through Epidemiology Injury Prevention & Control ContributorsHugh De HavenJohn E. GordonWilliam Haddon, Jr.Public Health Modelsimilar to communicable disease model - except agent is “energy” in this model
19 Public Health Model for Unintentional Injuries EnergyHostEnvironmentPublic Health Model for Unintentional Injuries
20 Public Health Model for Unintentional Injuries EnergyControl tactics based uponinterrupting transmissionof damaging energy to host.HostEnvironmentPublic Health Model for Unintentional Injuries
21 Public Health Model for Unintentional Injuries A. Prevent accumulation of energyB. Prevent the inappropriate release of energyC. Place a barrier between host & agentD. Completely separate the host from the source of energyEnergyControl tactics based uponinterrupting transmissionof damaging energy to host.HostEnvironmentPublic Health Model for Unintentional Injuries
22 Community Approach to Prevention of Unintentional Injuries EducationRegulationsEmergency Response SystemAutomatic ProtectionLitigation
23 Injuries Intentional Types approximately 50,000 people die each year approximately 2.2 million receive nonfatal injuries as a result of interpersonal violenceTypesAssaultsFamily ViolenceRapeRobberySuicideHomicide
24 Epidemiology of Intentional Injuries Rates of homicide, assault, & rapehomicide rate 9.8 per 100,000declining ratesrisk factorsSuicide & attempted suicidenearly 30,000 suicides are reported each yearrates among the young have tripled since 1950Firearm injuries2nd leading cause of injury death60% of homicide & 55% of suicides involved a firearm
25 Violence in our Society Individuals & Violencelack communication & problem solving skillsfirearms are easy to obtain & deadlyFamily Violence & Abuse1 in 6 homicides is the result of family violenceChild MaltreatmentChild abuseChild neglectIntimate Partner ViolenceModel for abuseGangs & Violence