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ninth edition STEPHEN P. ROBBINS PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama MARY COULTER © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Motivating Employees Chapter 16
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.16–2 L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. What Is Motivation? Define motivation.Define motivation. Explain motivation as a need-satisfying process.Explain motivation as a need-satisfying process. Early Theories of Motivation Describe Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and how it can be used to motivate.Describe Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and how it can be used to motivate. Discuss how Theory X and Theory Y managers approach motivation.Discuss how Theory X and Theory Y managers approach motivation. Describe Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory.Describe Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory. Explain Herzberg’s views of satisfaction and dissatisfaction.Explain Herzberg’s views of satisfaction and dissatisfaction.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.16–3 L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d) Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. Contemporary Theories of Motivation Describe the three needs McClelland proposed as being present in work settings.Describe the three needs McClelland proposed as being present in work settings. Explain how goal-setting and reinforcement theories explain employee motivation.Explain how goal-setting and reinforcement theories explain employee motivation. Discuss the motivation implications of equity theory.Discuss the motivation implications of equity theory. Contrast distributive justice and procedural justice.Contrast distributive justice and procedural justice. Explain the three key linkages in expectancy theory and their role in motivation.Explain the three key linkages in expectancy theory and their role in motivation.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.16–4 What Is Motivation? MotivationMotivation Is the result of an interaction between the person and a situation; it is not a personal trait. Is the process by which a person’s efforts are energized, directed, and sustained towards attaining a goal. Energy: a measure of intensity or drive. Direction: toward organizational goals Persistence: exerting effort to achieve goals. Motivation works best when individual needs are compatible with organizational goals.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.16–5 Early Theories of Motivation Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsMaslow’s Hierarchy of Needs McGregor’s Theories X and YMcGregor’s Theories X and Y Herzberg’s Two-Factor TheoryHerzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.16–6 Early Theories of Motivation Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs TheoryMaslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory Needs were categorized as five levels of lower- to higher-order needs. Individuals must satisfy lower-order needs before they can satisfy higher order needs. Satisfied needs will no longer motivate. Motivating a person depends on knowing at what level that person is on the hierarchy. Hierarchy of needs Lower-order (external): physiological, safety Higher-order (internal): social, esteem, self-actualization
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.16–7 Exhibit 16–1Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.16–8 Early Theories of Motivation (cont’d) McGregor’s Theory X and Theory YMcGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Theory X Assumes that workers have little ambition, dislike work, avoid responsibility, and require close supervision. Theory Y Assumes that workers can exercise self-direction, desire responsibility, and like to work. Assumption: Motivation is maximized by participative decision making, interesting jobs, and good group relations.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.16–9 Early Theories of Motivation (cont’d) Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene TheoryHerzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are created by different factors. Hygiene factors: extrinsic (environmental) factors that create job dissatisfaction. Motivators: intrinsic (psychological) factors that create job satisfaction. Attempted to explain why job satisfaction does not result in increased performance. The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, but rather no satisfaction.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.16–10 Exhibit 16–2Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.16–11 Exhibit 16–3Contrasting Views of Satisfaction-Dissatisfaction
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.16–12 Contemporary Theories of Motivation Three-Needs TheoryThree-Needs Theory Goal-Setting TheoryGoal-Setting Theory Reinforcement TheoryReinforcement Theory Equity TheoryEquity Theory Expectancy TheoryExpectancy Theory
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.16–13 Motivation and Needs Three-Needs Theory (McClelland)Three-Needs Theory (McClelland) There are three major acquired needs that are major motives in work. Need for achievement (nAch) –The drive to excel and succeed Need for power (nPow) –The need to influence the behavior of others Need of affiliation (nAff) –The desire for interpersonal relationships
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.16–14 Motivation and Goals Goal-Setting TheoryGoal-Setting Theory Proposes that setting goals that are accepted, specific, and challenging yet achievable will result in higher performance than having no or easy goals. Is culture bound to the U.S. and Canada. Benefits of Participation in Goal-SettingBenefits of Participation in Goal-Setting Increases the acceptance of goals. Fosters commitment to difficult, public goals. Provides for self-feedback (internal locus of control) that guides behavior and motivates performance (self- efficacy).
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.16–15 Exhibit 16–5Goal-Setting Theory
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.16–16 Motivation and Behavior Reinforcement TheoryReinforcement Theory Assumes that a desired behavior is a function of its consequences, is externally caused, and if reinforced, is likely to be repeated. Positive reinforcement is preferred for its long-term effects on performance Ignoring undesired behavior is better than punishment which may create additional dysfunctional behaviors.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.16–17 Motivation and Perception Equity TheoryEquity Theory Proposes that employees perceive what they get from a job situation (outcomes) in relation to what they put in (inputs) and then compare their inputs-outcomes ratio with the inputs-outcomes ratios of relevant others. If the ratios are perceived as equal then a state of equity (fairness) exists. If the ratios are perceived as unequal, inequity exists and the person feels under- or over-rewarded. When inequities occur, employees will attempt to do something to rebalance the ratios (seek justice).
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.16–18 Motivation and Perception (cont’d) Equity Theory (cont’d)Equity Theory (cont’d) Employee responses to perceived inequities: Distort own or others’ ratios. Induce others to change their own inputs or outcomes. Change own inputs (increase or decrease efforts) or outcomes (seek greater rewards). Choose a different comparison (referent) other (person, systems, or self). Quit their job. Employees are concerned with both the absolute and relative nature of organizational rewards.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.16–19 Exhibit 16–8Equity Theory
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.16–20 Motivation and Perception (cont’d) Equity Theory (cont’d)Equity Theory (cont’d) Distributive justice The perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals (i.e., who received what). –Influences an employee’s satisfaction. Procedural justice The perceived fairness of the process use to determine the distribution of rewards (i.e., how who received what). –Affects an employee’s organizational commitment.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.16–21 Motivation and Behavior Expectancy Theory (Vroom)Expectancy Theory (Vroom) States that an individual tends to act in a certain way based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. Key to the theory is understanding and managing employee goals and the linkages among and between effort, performance and rewards. Effort: employee abilities and training/development Performance: valid appraisal systems Rewards (goals): understanding employee needs
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.16–22 Exhibit 16–9Simplified Expectancy Model
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.16–23 Motivation and Behavior (cont’d) Expectancy RelationshipsExpectancy Relationships Expectancy (effort-performance linkage) The perceived probability that an individual’s effort will result in a certain level of performance. Instrumentality The perception that a particular level of performance will result in the attaining a desired outcome (reward). Valence The attractiveness/importance of the performance reward (outcome) to the individual.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.16–24 From Theory to Practice: Guidelines for Motivating Employees Use goalsUse goals Ensure that goals are perceived as attainableEnsure that goals are perceived as attainable Individualize rewardsIndividualize rewards Link rewards to performanceLink rewards to performance Check the system for equityCheck the system for equity Use recognitionUse recognition Show care and concern for employeesShow care and concern for employees Don’t ignore moneyDon’t ignore money
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.16–25 Terms to Know motivationmotivation hierarchy of needs theoryhierarchy of needs theory physiological needsphysiological needs safety needssafety needs social needssocial needs esteem needsesteem needs self-actualization needsself-actualization needs Theory XTheory X Theory YTheory Y motivation-hygiene theorymotivation-hygiene theory hygiene factorshygiene factors motivatorsmotivators three-needs theorythree-needs theory need for achievement (nAch)need for achievement (nAch) need for power (nPow)need for power (nPow) need for affiliation (nAff)need for affiliation (nAff) goal-setting theorygoal-setting theory self-efficacyself-efficacy reinforcement theoryreinforcement theory reinforcersreinforcers job designjob design job scopejob scope job enlargementjob enlargement
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.16–26 Terms to Know (cont’d) job enrichmentjob enrichment job depthjob depth equity theoryequity theory referentsreferents distributive justicedistributive justice procedural justiceprocedural justice expectancy theoryexpectancy theory
Motivation Motivation : involves a conscious decision to perform one or more activities with greater effort than one performs other activities competing.
PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall15–1 Motivating Employees Chapter 15 Management Stephen P. Robbins Mary Coulter tenth.
8 th edition Steven P. Robbins Mary Coulter PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook Copyright © 2005 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.
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