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Ch. 13 & 14 Informative Speaking and Persuasive Speaking

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1 Ch. 13 & 14 Informative Speaking and Persuasive Speaking

2 Types of Informative Speaking
By content or purpose

3 Content Speeches about processes-a series of actions that leads to a specific result The process involved in traveling abroad Speeches about objects-anything that can be seen or touched A speech about your guitar Speeches about events-when a topic refers to anything notable that has happened A speech about the war in Iraq

4 Purpose Descriptions- describing
Describing the traditions of a particular culture Explanations-explaining Explaining each of the steps involved in fire prevention Instructions-teaching Showing students how to protect themselves

5 Informative Vs. Persuasive

6 Informative you are not presenting info that is controversial
You are not trying to change audience attitudes You are trying to make the audience aware of something Usually to improve audience knowledge or ability

7 Persuasive Usually involves a controversial topic
You are trying to persuade the audience to take some sort of action, or change some sort of behavior

8 Techniques of Informative Speaking
1. Define a specific informative purpose 2. Create information hunger

9 3. Make it easy for audience to listen and understand
Limit amount of info you present -stick to 3-5 main topics use familiar information to increase understanding of the unfamiliar Use simple information to build understanding of complex info

10 4. Emphasize Important points
Use repetition -with main points -with material that is difficult to understand Use sign posts

11 Characteristics of persuasion
Persuasion is the process of motivating someone, through communication to change a particular belief, attitude, or behavior.

12 Persuasion is interactive
Can be compared to the transactional model It is an interaction that takes place between speaker and audience

13 Categorizing types of persuasion
By types of proposition or by desired outcome

14 By types of Proposition
Propositions of fact Propositions of value Propositions of policy

15 Propositions of fact issues in which there are two or more sides with conflicting evidence listeners are required to choose the truth for themselves Example: Kobe Bryant did/did not commit rape

16 Propositions of value go beyond issues of truth to explore the worth of some idea, person, or object Examples: President Bush is/ is not the best president Animal testing is/ is not wrong

17 Propositions of policy
Goes a step beyond fact or value in stating a recommended course of action Example: Animal testing is wrong, and everyone should not buy products that test on animals

18 Persuasive speeches based on desired outcome
Convincing- when goal of speech is to make the audience believe something -Kobe Bryant did not commit rape Actuating- when goal of speech is to get audience members to take specific actions -don’t buy make-up that is tested on animals

19 Persuasion can be categorized by to approaches:
Direct persuasion- state the persuasive message outright (speaker’s goals are clear from the beginning) 2. Indirect persuasion- persuasive message is not clear right away (may start with a question and continue speech to prove that question and persuade audience)

20 Creating the persuasive message
Set a clear persuasive purpose Structure the message carefully Describe the problem Describe the solution Describe the desired audience response

21 Avoid fallacies Fallacy- Errors in logical thinking
There are numerous types of fallacies

22 A few of the most common fallacies
AD HOMINEM- attack on the person instead of the argument -the speaker attacks the integrity of the person in order to weaken the argument

23 REDUCTIO AD ABSURDUM Reduction to the absurd
Unfairly attacks an argument by extending it to such extreme lengths that it looks ridiculous Straw man argument- a variation of ad absurdum fallacy Speaker attacks a potentially valid argument by demolishing a weak example and suggesting that it represents the entire position

24 EITHER-OR FALLACY Sets up false alternatives
Suggests that if the inferior one must be rejected, then the other must be accepted

False Cause Mistakenly assumes that one event causes another because they occur after one another

Appeal to authority Involves relying on the testimony of someone who is not an authority in the case being argued Occur often in advertising and politics

27 ARGUMENTUM AD POPULUM Bandwagon appeal
Based on idea that many other people like it or agree with it, so should you Wide spread acceptance of an idea is no guarantee that it is correct

28 In conclusion When constructing your speech be careful that it does not involve fallacious reasoning

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