2 The study of people doing things together, or Sociology isThe study of people doing things together, or“the systematic study of human social interaction” (Brinkerhoff, p. 2).
3 THE SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION IS: “the ability to see the intimate realities of our own lives in the context of common social structures; it is the ability to see personal troubles as public issues” (Brinkerhoff, P. 2).
4 THREE FOUNDERS OF SOCIOLOGY: KARL MARXEMILE DURKHEIMMAX WEBER
5 KARL MARX Materialist Conception of History People’s class positions depend on their relationship to the means of production.Two classes:Bourgeoisie (Owners)Proletariat (Workers)
6 EMILE DURKHEIM Social Facts: 1. Externality 2. Ability to Constrain Behavior
7 MAX WEBERRationalization of Society: “the search by people for the optimum means to a given end is shaped by rules, regulations, and larger social structures” (Ritzer, p. 23).
8 Rationalization has four dimensions: efficiencypredictabilitycalculabilitynonhuman technology
9 Three Sociological Perspectives: 1. Functionalism2. Conflict3. Symbolic Interactionism
10 Functionalism (Structural Functionalism) “addresses the question of social organization and how it is maintained” (Brinkerhoff, p. 10). Founder: Emile Durkheim
11 FunctionalismJust as physical scientists ask how particular body parts help maintain healthy biological organisms, so functionalists ask how particular institutions maintain healthy societies.
12 ASSUMPTIONS BEHIND FUNCTIONALISM (BRINKERHOFF, PP. 10): StabilityHarmonyEvolution
18 “Macrosociology focuses on social structures and organizations and the relationships between them” (Brinkerhoff, p. 14).“Microsociology focuses on the interactions among individuals” (Brinkerhoff, p. 14).
19 Symbolic Interactionism “addresses the subjective meaning of human acts and the processes through which people come to develop and communicate shared meanings” (Brinkerhoff, p. 13). Founder: George Herbert Mead
20 SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM: Symbols (Language) point to:Objects:GoalsThingsSocial Acts
21 Symbolic Interactionists focus on the definition of the situation for the people involved.
22 ASSUMPTIONS UNDERLYING SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM (BRINKERHOFF, P. 13): Symbolic meanings are importantMeanings grow out of relationshipsMeanings are negotiated
23 SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISTS ASK: “What does it mean?”
35 FIELDWORKStrengths:Provides a detailed, “thick description,” of people being observedWeakness:lack of theoretical generalizability
36 SURVEY RESEARCH:“is a method that involves asking a relatively large number of people the same set of standardized questions” (Brinkerhoff, p. 21).
37 Surveys are generally distributed to a sample of people from an entire population. Sociologists often use random samples, a sample in which all members of the population have an equal chance of being picked.
39 SURVEYS Strengths Weakness good idea about what a large amount of people think about a specific set of topicsWeaknessdon’t know much else about the population
40 EXPERIMENTS:“the researcher manipulates independent variables to test theories of cause and effect” (Brinkerhoff, p. 20).
41 CONTROL GROUPEXPERIMENTAL GROUPIndependent variableintroduced
42 EXPERIMENTS Strengths Weaknesses excellent for testing hypotheses about cause and effectWeaknessespossibly unethicalsubjects behave differently when under observationthey omit factors that would influence the same behavior in a real-life situation