4 Normal vs enlarged canine heart RF:The vertebral heart sum of the normal heart is ~10.1 (norm = 9.7 +/- .8).The vertebral heart sum of the abnormal heart is ~12.1.Elevation of the caudal mainstem bronchi and loss of caudal cardiac waist.Elongation of the caudal border of the heart.Cardiac silhouette is wider than normal.Bulging at the craniodorsal cardiac margin.There is decreased detail of the pulmonary vessel margins. This is due to increased interstitial infiltrates as a result of normal aging change.
5 Normal vs enlarged canine heart Ventrodorsal view
6 Normal vs enlarged canine heart RF:Heart occupies ~80% width of the thorax (norm = <65%).Cardiac silhouette is rounded in its’ contours with no visible apex.Left side of the heart is much closer to the thoracic wall than the right side of the heart is to the right side of the thorax but since the patient is rotated to the left it is unclear if there is left-sided cardiac enlargement or due to rotation.No evidence of pulmonary congestion.
9 Normal vs enlarged feline heart RFVertebral heart sum is ~ 7.5 in the normal cat and 9.0 in the abnormal cat (norm: ).Prominent bulges of both the cranial and caudal cardiac margins and a significant increase in the amount of sternal contact of the heart.Abnormal hear shape is the result of left ventricular hypertrophy, enlargement of the right and left atria and accentuation of the junction between the ventricle and atria.RDHypertrophic cardiomyopathy
10 Normal vs enlarged feline heart Ventrodorsal view
11 Normal vs enlarged feline heart RFThe heart is much too long.The atria are markedly enlarged .The ventricles are relatively normal size creating a “valentine heart”.Thorax is over-inflated, likely due to respiratory distress. This is noted as caudal displacement of the costodiaphragmatic angles and the scalloped appearance of the diaphragm in the ventrodorsal view.There is indication of interstitial infiltrates due to early cariogenic pulmonary edema.There is mild rotation of the normal VD view resulting in a false positioning of the heart to the left.