The Information- Processing Approach Fall 2003 FOUN 3100 Sondra M. Parmer Auburn University.
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The Information- Processing Approach Fall 2003 FOUN 3100 Sondra M. Parmer Auburn University
Information-Processing Approach Emphasizes that children manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it. Central to this approach are the processes of memory and thinking. Children develop a gradually increasing capacity for processing information.
Three Main Characteristics of the Information-Processing Approach
Thinking Thinking IS information processing. Highly flexible: Adjust and Adapt Limits: Amount and Speed
Change Mechanisms Encoding Information gets into memory automatization process information with little effort Strategy Discovery of new Construction processing procedures such as transfer and generalization
Self-Modification Metacognition (“knowing about knowing”) - students’ self-awareness can enable them to adapt and manage their strategies during problem solving and thinking.
Memory - The retention of information over time ENCODING - Getting information into memory STORAGE - Retaining information over time RETRIEVAL - Taking information out of storage
Encoding Attention - concentrating and focusing mental resources Selectivity Shifting from one activity to another appropriately Salient vs. relevant aspects of stimuli Attention-focusing strategies
Encoding Rehearsal - repetition of information Deep Processing - shallow vs. deep processing Elaboration - the extensiveness of information processing involved in encoding (i.e., personal associations and meaningfulness)
Encoding Constructing images verbal vs. image code Organization chunking strategy - using units of information that correspond to some familiar pattern (e.g., telephone numbers, social security numbers)
Center Time Get in groups of 4 people. There are 6 centers set up around the room. At each center there are written directions for a memory activity. Each group should complete the activity. Then each group should answer the questions written on the directions at the center. Each group will report back to the class a summary of the activity and a summary of the answers to the questions.