John Ingram “Global Environmental Change and Food Systems” (GECAFS) Linking Spatial and Temporal Scales and Levels in Human Systems.
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Presentation on theme: "John Ingram “Global Environmental Change and Food Systems” (GECAFS) Linking Spatial and Temporal Scales and Levels in Human Systems."— Presentation transcript:
John Ingram “Global Environmental Change and Food Systems” (GECAFS) email@example.com Linking Spatial and Temporal Scales and Levels in Human Systems Examples in the context of food security
Aims of the presentation 1.Discuss the nature of scales and levels in human systems. 2.Show how a “food systems” framework helps identify key aspects of human systems in the context of food security. 3.Show value of research at regional level in helping to link between global and local levels in human systems. 4.Give examples of how the human dimension of food systems can enhance or hinder food security.
Scale the quantitative or analytical dimension used to measure and study any phenomenon Level the unit of analysis that is located at different positions on a given scale Scale and Level (Cash et al, 2006, Ecology and Society )
Different scales and levels critical in understanding and responding to food system interactions Source: Cash et al., 2006 Ecology and Society
Different scales and levels critical in understanding and responding to food system interactions cont.
Cross-level, cross-scale, multi-level and multi-scale interactions Source: Cash et al., 2006 Ecology and Society
Food security…... exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. (World Food Summit 1996)
Food security is a fundamental human goal. Pursuit of food security has been intimately interwoven with the evolution of many human/societal structures, eg: laws & regulations customs & ceremonies trade & commerce These structures operate on several scales (e.g. temporal, jurisdictional, …) and at several levels within each scale (e.g. national, regional, …). Interactions between and within these scales are critical to understanding the controls on food security and interactions with the Earth System. Why choose Food Security for thinking about scales and levels in human systems?
Food security…... exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. (World Food Summit 1996)... is underpinned by Food Systems.
Food Security, i.e. stability over time for: FOOD UTILISATION FOOD ACCESS Affordability Allocation Preference Nutritional Value Social Value Food Safety FOOD AVAILABILITY Production Distribution Exchange Environmental Conditions Ecosystem stocks & flows Ecosystem services Access to natural capital Social Conditions Income Employment Wealth Social capital Political capital Human capital Food System OUTCOMES Contributing to: Food System ACTIVITIES Producing food: natural resources, inputs, markets, … Processing & packaging food: raw materials, standards, storage requirement, … Distributing & retailing food: transport, marketing, advertising, … Consuming food: acquisition, preparation, customs, … Food System Concept... exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. (World Food Summit 1996)
Ignorance the failure to recognise important scale and level interactions in food systems altogether, e.g. El Nino-induced changes in anchovy catch in the E Pacific and N-efflux from global soyabean production Mismatch the persistence of mismatches between levels and scales in food systems, e.g. food security responses for weather extremes planned at national level vs. community level Plurality the failure to recognise heterogeneity in food systems in the way that scales are perceived and valued by different actors, even at the same level, e.g. local food aid programmes vs. local social safety-nets 3 key “Scale Challenges” situations in which the current combination of cross-scale and cross-level interactions threatens to undermine food security Based on Cash et al., 2006 Ecology and Society
1.Climate and weather-related perturbations are often experienced – and are increasingly available – at the regional level adaptation strategies focussed on human systems may prove more effective if managed at the regional level. 2.Environmental management issues related to food security may manifest strongly at regional level solutions to such problems may often require supra-national policy considerations (e.g. agreements on inter-basin transfers of water). 3.Regional governance structures have been established in many parts of the world offer a clear ‘client’ for discussing research on scale challenges. Regional-level studies help identify “Scale Challenges” when trying to link global to local food security issues
“Scale Challenges” across human systems at regional scale 3 examples for southern Africa 1.Food trade: global vs. regional; formal/informal trade 2.Food distribution: food aid in 91/92 drought 3.Food retailing: the role of supermarkets Food System ACTIVITIES Producing Processing & Packaging Distributing & Retailing Consuming
South Africa, 2002 Zambia, 2003 Source: FAO Statistics Division, 2007 1. Food trade Formal & informal trading systems operate at different levels and are often nested and/or overlapping Informal cross- border trade Malawi received ca. 75% of the total amount of maize traded informally in the region (WFP, 2006).
Ignorance Formal national and donor food security strategies may not account for informal trade Mismatch Trade barriers and lack of harmonisation of trading systems and tariffs constrain food movements across borders Plurality Both formal and informal trade systems key to satisfying national food security Example “Scale Challenges” related to food trade
2. Food distribution 1991/92 drought 2.6 million sq miles stricken by drought 86 million people affected 20 million people at “serious risk” 1.5 million refugees and displaced people Six “corridors” for food aid shipments from region’s main ports: Dar es Salaam; Nacala; Beira & Maputo; RSA; Walvis Bay; Luanda Example human system impediments: Different quarantine regulations Transit toll fees Poor port labour management (no incentives to work more than necessary)
Ignorance National toll & quarantine policies vis à vis regional donor approach Global response vis à vis poor regional port management Mismatch Jurisdiction of the national institutions not coterminous with supplying food to region Urgency of food need poorly- matched with institutional response speed Plurality Conflict between humanitarian requirements and commercial concerns Variety of objectives among donors, recipients and regional institutions Example “Scale Challenges” related to distribution of emergency food aid
3. Food retailing The increasing role of supermarkets Rapid rise of supermarkets in the southern Africa, proliferating beyond middle-class big-city markets into smaller towns and poorer areas Transforming the food retail sector (already >55% of South African food retail) Changing consumption patterns: more choice + strong marketing usually promoting more processed foodstuffs Supplying supermarkets potentially offers large opportunities for producers but also presents two big challenges: procurement systems involve purchase consolidation, a shift to specialised wholesalers and tough quality and safety standards investments and new practices is hard, esp. for small producers
Example “Scale Challenges” related to supermarkets Ignorance Small scale producers have little information about standards for food quality and processing Mismatch Supermarket purchasing systems not well suited to many small producers Plurality Processed foods are increasingly available but erode traditions based on local food
Conclusion 1: Helps set cross-scale, cross-level research questions Institutional Spatial Management Jurisdictional Management Temporal How would interactions among rules, laws and constitutions affect food system adaptation at different spatial levels? How would short-term changes in donor philosophy for food- and seed-aid as applied at the local level affect long-term regional self-reliance? How would implementing different short-term adaptation policies in different nations influence regional food security goals?
DRIVER Interactions Socioeconomic DRIVERS Changes in: Demographics, Economics, Socio-political context, Cultural context Science & Technology GEC DRIVERS Changes in: Land cover & soils, Atmospheric Comp., Climate variability & means, Water availability & quality, Nutrient availability & cycling, Biodiversity, Sea currents & salinity, Sea level ‘Natural’ DRIVERS e.g. Volcanoes Solar cycles Environmental feedbacks e.g. water quality, GHGs Socioeconomic feedbacks e.g. livelihoods, social cohesion Food System ACTIVITIES Producing food Processing & Packaging food Distributing & Retailing food Consuming food Food System OUTCOMES Contributing to: Social Welfare Environ Welfare Food Utilisation Food Access Food Availability Food Security Conclusion 2: Importance of Scales and Levels when analysing Food Systems in context of drivers and feedbacks