Presentation on theme: "Diffraction through a single slit"— Presentation transcript:
1 Diffraction through a single slit Diffraction refers to the spreading or bending of waves around edges.The fringe pattern formed by a single slit consists ofAlternate bright and dark fringes and the fringes fadeaway from the centre.
4 Young’s ExperimentThomas Young( )sunlightIn 1801, Thomas Young devised and performed an experiment demonstrating the wave nature of light. The difficulty confronting Young was that the usual light sources of the day (candles, lanterns, etc.) could not serve as coherent light sources.Young's method involved using sunlight that entered the room through a pinhole in a window shutter. A mirror was used to direct the pinhole beam horizontally across the room. Young used a small paper card to break the single pinhole beam into two beams and observed an interference pattern on a screen.4
6 Schematic diagram of Young’s double-slit experiment SingleslitLightsource
7 Conditions for Observable Interference Coherent SourcesCoherent sources are those which emit light waves of the same wavelength or frequency and are always in phase with each other or have a constant phase difference.PolarizationThe wave disturbance have the same polarization.AmplitudesThe two sets of wave must have roughly equal amplitude.Path DifferenceThe path difference between the light waves must not be too great.
8 Appearance of Young’s interference Fringes If the source slit is moved nearer to the double slits the separation of the fringes is unaffected but their brightness increases.If the separation of the double slits decreases, the separation of the fringes increases.If the width of slits is widened, the number of fringes decreases.If white light is used the central fringe is white and the fringes on either side are coloured.
10 Interference by Thin Films Thin film interference patterns seen inThin film of soapy waterSeashellA thin layer of oil on theWater of a street puddle
11 Parallel-sided Thin Film (1) Consider a film of soap with uniform thickness in airWhen a beam of light is incidenton to the surface of the film, part of incident light is reflected on the top surface and part of that transmitted is reflected on the lower surface.tairIf the film is not too thick, the tworeflected beams produces aninterference effect.Soap film
12 Parallel-sided Thin Film(2) If light travelling in a less dense medium is reflected by a dense medium, the reflected wave is phase-shifted by π.If light travelling in a dense medium is reflected by a less dense medium, the reflected wave does not experience any phase shift.
13 Parallel sided Thin Film (3) Constructive interference occurs if the path difference between the two reflected light beams isWhere n = 0, 1, 2, …Destructive interference occurs if the path difference between the two reflected light beams isWhere n = 0, 1, 2, …If the film has a refractive index μ then we get
14 Parallel sided Thin Film (4) On the other hand, the part reflected at the lower surface must travel the extra distance of 2 t, where t is the thickness of the film.That is, 2t is the path difference between the two reflected beams.If 2t = (n+½) λ then constructive interference occurs.If 2t = nλ then destructive interference occurs.When t is large, several values of λ satisfy the equation. The film will appear to be generally illuminated.
15 Blooming of Lenses (1)The process of coating a film on the lens is called blooming.A very thin coating on the lens surface can reduce reflections of light considerably.
16 Blooming of Lenses (2)The amount of reflection of light at a boundary depends on the difference in refractive index between the two materials.Ideally, the coating material should have a refractive index so that the amount of reflection at each surface is about equal. Then destructive interference can occur nearly completely for one particular wavelength.
17 Blooming of Lenses (3)The thickness of the film is chosen so that light reflecting from the front and rear surfaces of the film destructively interferes.For cancellation of reflected light,
18 Thin Film of Air, Wedged-shaped (1) Light rays reflected from the upper and lower surfaces of a thin wedge of air interfere to produce bright and dark fringes.The fringes are equally spaced and parallel to the thin end of the wedge.
19 Thin Film of Air, Wedged-shaped (2) For minimum intensity, 2t = nλ.For maximum intensity, 2t = (n+½)λ.Fringe Spacing, yθt
20 Newton’s Rings (1)When a curved glass surface is placed in contact with a flat glass surface, a series of concentric rings is seen when illuminated from above by monochromatic light. These are called Newton’s rings.
21 Newton’s Ring (2)Newton’s rings are due to interference between rays reflected by the top and bottom surfaces of the very thin air gap between the two pieces of glass.Newton’s rings represent a system of contour fringes with radial symmetry.The point of contact of the two glass surfaces is dark, which tells us the two rays must be completely out of phase.
22 Flatness of SurfacesObserved fringes for a wedged-shaped air film between two glass plates that are not flat.Each dark fringe corresponds to a region of equal thickness in the film.Between two adjacent fringes the change in thickness is λ/2μ.where μ is the refractive index of the film.
23 Multiple Slits (1) The fringes of the double Double slit patternThree-slit patternThe fringes of the doubleslit pattern fade away from centre and disappear at the single slit minimum.There is a subsidiary maximum between the double slit maxima.The fringes become narrowerand sharper.
24 Multiple Slits (2)The fringes become sharper as the number of slits is increased.The subsidiary maxima become less and less significant as the number of slits is increased.
25 Diffraction GratingA large number of equally spaced parallel slits is called a diffraction grating.A diffraction grating can be thought of as an optical component that has tiny grooves cut into it. The grooves are cut so small that their measurements approach the wave length of light.
26 Diffraction GratingsA diffraction grating splits a plane wave into a number of subsidiary waves which can be brought together to form an interference pattern.
27 Action of Diffraction Grating If d is the slit spacing then the path difference between the light rays X and Y = d sin θ.For principal maxima,d sin θ = nλ.The closer the slits, the more widely spaced are the diffracted beams.The longer the wavelength of light used, the more widely spaced are the diffracted beams.θXYdPath difference= d sin θ
28 Number of Diffraction beams Since sin θ 1,θ1θ2n = 0n = 1n = 2The highest order number is given by the value of d/λ rounded down to the nearest whole number.
29 Using a diffraction grating to measure the wavelength of light A spectrometer is a device to measure wavelengths of light accurately using diffraction grating to separate.LightsourceCollimator CAchromatic lensesDiffraction gratingTelescope TEyepieceEyeθCross-wireTurntable
30 View through Diffraction Grating Spectrum of a star- ProcyonDiffraction grating placed in front of a methane air flame
31 Make Presentation: Tahany Hassan Fakeeh (MP)N: END,.